What research method is best to use to study children’s interaction during the school day when they don’t think they are being watched? What ethical concerns are associated with this type of research?

  

Write a 100- to 150-word response to each of the following
questions associated with each scenario.
1.
A psychologist is interested
in learning more about how children interact with each other during the school
day. The psychologist is particularly interested in discovering the ways in
which children behave when they donot think they are being watched. What research method would be best used to
conduct this type of research, and why? What ethical concerns might be an issue
in this type of research?
2.
As a researcher, I am
interested in learning whether or not there is a connection between sleep and
test scores. I want to know if an increase in sleep improves test scores, for
example. What type of research method would I use, and why? What ethical
concerns might present an issue when conducting this type of research?
3.
If I want to research whether
or not a new medication has an effect
on depression, and I want to compare the medication against a
placebo, what research method might I use, and why? What ethical concerns might
be an issue in this type of research?

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Research plays an essential role in understanding human behavior, finding solutions to problems, and making informed decisions. Various research methods are used to study different phenomena, and each method has its strengths and limitations. In this article, we will explore three different research methods that can be used to study various aspects of human behavior. We will also highlight potential ethical concerns that researchers need to consider while conducting research.

Description:

In the first scenario, a psychologist is interested in observing children’s behavior during the school day when they don’t think they are being watched. The second scenario involves exploring the connection between sleep and test scores. The third scenario aims to test the effectiveness of a new medication for depression by comparing it to a placebo. In each of these scenarios, the researchers have a specific research question in mind and need to select an appropriate research method that can help answer these questions. Researchers also need to be aware of ethical concerns while carrying out research to protect the well-being and rights of participants.

Scenario 1:

Research Method: Observational study

Observational studies involve observing and recording behavior in natural settings. It is the best research method for studying behavior when participants are unaware of being observed. In this scenario, the psychologist can observe children’s behavior during unstructured periods like recess or lunchtime. The observation can be done with or without the knowledge of the children to capture their natural behavior.

Ethical Concerns: Potential ethical concerns in an observational study include the issue of informed consent, confidentiality, and potential harm to participants. Since the study involves children, both parental consent and children’s consent may be required, and anonymity should be ensured to protect participants’ privacy.

Scenario 2:

Research Method: Experimental study

An experimental study involves manipulating one variable to observe the effect it has on another variable. In this scenario, the researcher can manipulate the amount of sleep that participants get and measure its impact on their test scores. They can compare the test scores of two groups, one that gets sufficient sleep and the other that doesn’t.

Ethical Concerns: Ethical concerns when conducting experimental research include obtaining informed consent, minimizing risk to participants, and ensuring confidentiality. In the case of this study, participants need to be aware that they are part of an experiment and the potential risks associated with the experiment should be minimized. Confidentiality is also crucial to protect the privacy of participants.

Scenario 3:

Research Method: Placebo-controlled randomized trial

A placebo-controlled randomized trial involves randomly assigning participants to receive either the treatment or a placebo and measuring the effects of the treatment. In this scenario, the researcher can randomly assign participants with depression to receive either the new medication or a placebo and measure the effects of the treatment.

Ethical Concerns: Potential ethical concerns in this study include obtaining informed consent, minimizing harm to participants, and ensuring confidentiality. Participants should be aware that they are part of a study and the risks associated with the treatment. Confidentiality is also crucial to protect the participants’ privacy.

Objectives:
– Understand the different research methods used in psychology.
– Identify ethical concerns that may arise in conducting research.

Learning Outcomes:
– Define the concept of research methods in psychology.
– Explain the benefits and limitations of various research methods in psychology.
– Identify the ethical concerns involved in conducting research and understand the importance of following ethical guidelines.

1. For a psychologist interested in studying how children behave when they think they are not being watched, the best research method would be naturalistic observation. This method allows the psychologist to observe the children in their natural environment without interfering or influencing their behavior. Ethical concerns that may arise in this type of research include the need to obtain informed consent from both the children and their parents, maintaining the anonymity and confidentiality of the participants, and protecting them from any physical or psychological harm. The psychologist must also disclose their reasons for observing the children and take steps to ensure that their presence does not affect the behavior of those being observed.

2. To study the relationship between sleep and test scores, the best research method would be a correlational study. This method involves examining the relationship between two variables to determine whether they are related. In this case, the two variables are sleep and test scores. Correlational studies are useful because they allow researchers to examine the relationship between variables without manipulating them. Ethical concerns that may arise in this type of research include obtaining informed consent from participants, ensuring that any data collected is kept confidential, and protecting participants from physical or psychological harm.

3. To research whether a new medication has an effect on depression, the best research method would be a double-blind placebo-controlled study. This method involves giving both the experimental group (those who receive the medication) and the control group (those who receive the placebo) the same treatment, while neither group knows whether they are receiving the medication or the placebo. This method is useful to minimize bias and increase the validity of the results. Ethical concerns that may arise in this type of research include obtaining informed consent from participants, ensuring they are aware of the risks involved in the research, and taking steps to minimize any harm that may occur.

Solution 1:

Are you a psychologist interested in studying how children interact with each other during the school day? Conducting a naturalistic observation can give you an insight into the behavior of children when they think they are not being watched. Naturalistic observation lets you observe a group of children without interference, and this can result in rich, ethnographic data coupled with an indepth analysis of the behavior of children. However, ethical concerns such as obtaining permission and informed consent from parents or guardians should be considered. Furthermore, you should ensure that the children’s identities remain anonymous.

Solution 2:

As a researcher, you are interested in the connection between sleep and test scores. You can use an experimental research method to ascertain if an increase in sleep improves test scores. In an experimental method, you design a study in which participants are randomly assigned into different groups, then you manipulate the amount of sleep each group receives. This way, you can compare the effect of increased sleep on test scores. However, you will need to ensure that ethical issues such as informed consent, confidentiality, and debriefing are considered. You should also take into account that participants may turn in false results due to the placebo effect, social desirability and deliberate dishonesty.

Solution 3:

As a researcher interested in researching the effect of a new medication on depression, you should consider using a double-blind randomized controlled trial. This research method will enable you to test the efficacy of the medication by comparing it with a placebo and determining the effect size while minimizing the risk of external and internal influences. You must bear in mind ethical concerns such as obtaining informed consent, providing an opportunity to withdraw, and providing adequate medical care for depressed patients at all times. Moreover, you should consult and include the opinion of an independent Board of Ethics to ensure that the research methods are implemented within the framework of ethical guidelines.

# Suggested Resources/Books
1. “Naturalistic Observation” by P. Michael Conn and John C. Wingfield
2. “Introduction to Survey Research and Data Analysis” by Herbert F. Weisberg
3. “Research Methods in Psychology” by Beth Morling
4. “Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences” by Roger E. Kirk

# Similar Asked Questions
1. What ethical considerations should be taken into account when conducting research on children?
2. Can sleep affect academic performance in adults?
3. What is the difference between a placebo and a control in research?
4. How can the reliability and validity of research methods be ensured?
5. What are some alternative research techniques to conducting surveys and experiments?

## Response to Question #1
The best research method for a psychologist interested in studying how children behave when they don’t think they are being watched is naturalistic observation. This method involves observing children in their natural environment without their knowledge. This allows the researcher to obtain firsthand information about how children interact with each other without being influenced by the researcher’s presence. However, ethical concerns need to be taken into account in this type of research, since the anonymity of the children may be compromised, and informed consent cannot be obtained from them. Thus, the researcher must ensure that they are observing the children in a way that does not harm them, and obtain the consent of the child’s parents and school authorities.

## Response to Question #2
To investigate the relationship between sleep and academic performance, a researcher can use experimental research designs. They can manipulate the amount of sleep the participants receive and measure their performance on a standardized test. This method allows the researcher to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between sleep and test scores. However, the ethical concerns that may arise while conducting this research are related to depriving participants of sleep, which can have negative effects on their wellbeing. Thus, the researcher must ensure that they adhere to the guidelines set by the Institutional Review Board regarding the duration and frequency of sleep deprivation.

## Response to Question #3
When researching the effect of a new medication on depression, researchers would use a randomized controlled trial. This method involves assigning participants randomly to either the treatment group or the placebo group, and then comparing the effects of the treatment and placebo on the participants. The use of a placebo control group allows researchers to determine the effectiveness of the medication by comparing it to the effects of a non-active substance. In terms of ethical concerns, researchers must ensure that the risks of the study are clearly explained to the participants, and that they give informed consent before participating. Additionally, researchers must ensure that the study design does not compromise the confidentiality of the participants.

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