What is the availability heuristic and how is it used?

  

To prepare for this discussion, please read Chapter 5 of yourtextbook(Feenstra, 2013). In addition, readJudgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases(Tversky and Kahneman, 1974). Finally, review Instructor Guidance and Announcements. In this discussion, you will consider judgment and decision making. Be sure to use your ownacademic voiceand applyin-text citationsappropriately throughout your post. Locate an additional peer-reviewed source to support your ideas.Outlineone of the following options:Identifyan example (not from the textbook) to illustrate one of the following heuristics:availability heuristic and representativeness heuristic, or affect heuristic.Examinethe use of heuristics. How are our judgments, including attitudes and behaviors, influenced by social and cognitive factors?Identifyan example (not from the textbook) to illustrate one of the following errors in judgment: belief perseverance, confirmation bias, or illusion of control.Examineerrors in judgment. How are our judgments, including attitudes and behaviors, influenced by social and cognitive factors?Post your initial response of 250 words or more

Introduction:

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In the field of psychology, decision making and judgment have always been an interesting area of study. The process through which individuals make decisions has been a topic of research for many years, and psychologists have continued to explore various factors that affect our judgments. In this discussion, we will delve into the concept of heuristics and biases and examine the impact of these cognitive shortcuts on our decisions. The purpose of this discussion is to understand how heuristics and biases influence our judgments, behaviors and attitudes.

Description:

In this discussion, we will explore two different options. The first option requires us to identify an example that illustrates either the availability heuristic, representativeness heuristic or the affect heuristic. We will explain how the selected heuristic operates and the impact it has on judgments, attitudes, and behaviors. The second option requires us to analyze the use of heuristics in decision making and how our judgments, attitudes, and behaviors are influenced by social and cognitive factors. We will use an additional peer-reviewed source to support our ideas.

In addition, we will explore the concept of errors in judgment and identify an example that illustrates one of the following: belief perseverance, confirmation bias, or illusion of control. We will explain how the selected error impacts an individual’s decision-making process and how social and cognitive factors influence our judgments, attitudes, and behaviors.

In analyzing these concepts, we will use our academic voice and apply in-text citations appropriately throughout our posts. The purpose of this discussion is to provide a deep understanding of the use of heuristics, biases and errors in judgment, and how they influence our decision-making process.

Objectives:
– To understand heuristics and biases in decision making
– To identify one specific example of a heuristic or error in judgment
– To examine the influence of social and cognitive factors on judgments and attitudes
– To support ideas with peer-reviewed sources and apply appropriate in-text citations

Learning Outcomes:
– Demonstrate an understanding of availability, representativeness and affect heuristics, as well as belief perseverance, confirmation bias and illusion of control
– Apply the concepts of heuristics and biases to a real-world example
– Analyze the role of social and cognitive factors in influencing judgments and attitudes
– Support ideas with peer-reviewed sources and appropriately use in-text citations

Heading 1: Introduction
– Provides an overview of the discussion topic and objectives
– Includes a brief explanation of what heuristics and errors in judgment are

Heading 2: Heuristics and Biases
– Discusses the three types of heuristics (availability, representativeness and affect) and provides definitions and examples
– Outlines how heuristics can lead to biases in decision making
– Cites Tversky and Kahneman’s study on judgment under uncertainty to support the discussion

Heading 3: Example Illustration
– Provides a real-world example to illustrate one of the heuristics or errors in judgment
– Analyzes how the heuristic or error in judgment influenced the decision-making process and outcome
– Cites at least one peer-reviewed source to support the example and analysis

Heading 4: Influence of Social and Cognitive Factors
– Discusses how social and cognitive factors can influence judgments, attitudes and behaviors
– Examines the role of groupthink, conformity, culture and emotional states in decision making
– Cites at least one peer-reviewed source to support the discussion

Heading 5: Conclusion
– Summarizes the main points of the discussion
– Restates the learning outcomes
– Ends with a thought-provoking question or call to action for readers

Solution 1:

The representativeness heuristic is a cognitive shortcut that allows us to make decisions based on how closely an object or an event matches a particular prototype. For example, if we are presented with a description of a person who is shy, likes to read books, and enjoys nature walks, we may infer that they are more likely to be a librarian than a salesperson, simply because the former seems to fit the prototype of a librarian better.

A study conducted by Liberman, Minson, and Ross (2014) provided an interesting example of how the representativeness heuristic can lead us astray. They asked a group of participants to read a description of a person named Linda who was described as being very concerned with social issues and passionate about feminist causes. The participants were then asked to rate the likelihood of different events based on this information, such as whether Linda was more likely to be a bank teller or a bank teller who is also active in the feminist movement.

The results showed that most participants (85%) judged the second option to be more probable, even though it is logically impossible for two events to be more probable than one of them alone. This illustrates how the representativeness heuristic can lead us to overlook basic principles of probability and focus instead on the plausibility of a particular story.

Solution 2:

Belief perseverance is a cognitive bias that occurs when we cling to our initial beliefs even when they have been proven to be incorrect. For example, if we hold a belief that all people from a particular ethnic group are dishonest, we may interpret any behavior from a member of that group as evidence supporting our belief, while dismissing any evidence to the contrary as an exception.

A study conducted by Snyder and Swann (1978) demonstrated the powerful effects of belief perseverance. They asked a group of participants to evaluate a job candidate based on a series of cues, such as their qualifications, appearance, and performance on a test. The participants were then given feedback that the candidate had either passed or failed the test, with the feedback being either consistent or inconsistent with their initial impression of the candidate.

The results showed that participants who received consistent feedback were more likely to maintain their initial impression of the candidate even when it was proven to be incorrect. This illustrates how our beliefs can be strongly influenced by initial impressions and can be difficult to change even in the face of contradictory evidence.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman
2. The Art of Thinking Clearly by Rolf Dobelli
3. Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions by Dan Ariely
4. Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness by Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein
5. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion by Robert B. Cialdini

Similar Asked Questions:

1. How does the availability heuristic influence decision making?
2. What is the affect heuristic and how can it influence our judgments?
3. What strategies can be used to overcome the confirmation bias?
4. How does the illusion of control impact decision making?
5. How do social and cultural factors influence the use of heuristics in decision making?

Examine the Use of Heuristics: How Are Our Judgments Influenced by Social and Cognitive Factors?

Heuristics are mental shortcuts that individuals use to make decisions quickly and efficiently. They are often characterized by their simplicity, speed, and reliance on easily accessible information. However, the use of heuristics can also lead to biases, as individuals may rely on incomplete or inaccurate information.

One significant cognitive factor that can influence the use of heuristics is the availability heuristic. This heuristic occurs when individuals base their judgments on the most readily available information, rather than considering all relevant information. For example, individuals may be more likely to remember events that are unusual or emotionally charged, leading them to overestimate the likelihood of such events occurring again in the future.

Similarly, the representativeness heuristic can also be influenced by cognitive factors, particularly in terms of stereotypes and categorization. This heuristic occurs when individuals make judgments based on how closely an event or person matches their mental prototype or stereotype. For example, an individual may assume that a person who is loud and outgoing is also extroverted and confident.

However, social factors can also play a role in the use of heuristics, particularly in terms of group identity and conformity. For example, individuals may be more likely to use heuristics that are consistent with the beliefs and values of their social group. Additionally, pressure to conform may lead individuals to rely on heuristics that are endorsed by the group, rather than engaging in independent judgment.

Overall, the use of heuristics is influenced by a complex interplay of cognitive and social factors. While heuristics can be useful in streamlining decision making, they can also lead to errors and biases if not used effectively. Therefore, it is important to be aware of these factors and to engage in critical thinking and reflection when making important decisions.

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