What is Kara’s IQ score, according to Sternberg’s theory?

  

Consider the
following scenario:
Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence
test. Her mental age is 13.
According to Sternberg, what is Karas IQ? Conduct research
and interpret her score.
Choose two theories
of intelligence.
Write a 150- to 200-word
discussion on the components of each theory, and how they differ in relation to
Spearmans g factor.

Introduction:

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What is Kara’s IQ score, according to Sternberg’s theory?
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Intelligence has always been a complex and fascinating topic of study. It refers to an individual’s ability to understand and learn from experience, adapt to situations, and apply acquired knowledge. Intelligence tests have been used for decades to measure cognitive abilities and provide insight into an individual’s mental capacity. However, there are different theories that try to explain the concept of intelligence, which can have a significant impact on how we interpret test results.

Description:

In this scenario, 10-year-old Kara took an intelligence test that yielded a mental age of 13. To determine her IQ, we need to use the formula developed by Sternberg, which is IQ = (mental age/actual age) x 100. Applying this formula to Kara’s results gives us an IQ of approximately 130. This score indicates that Kara performs above average when compared to her peers of the same age.

There are different theories of intelligence, each with a unique perspective on what comprises intelligence. Two prominent theories are Cattell and Horn’s fluid-crystallized intelligence theory and Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory. The fluid-crystallized intelligence theory postulates that intelligence has two components: fluid and crystallized. Fluid intelligence refers to an individual’s ability to reason, solve problems and think abstractly. In contrast, crystallized intelligence refers to the ability to use knowledge and experience acquired through education and the environment. These abilities involve facts, vocabulary, familiarity with nuances in meaning, and other forms of culturally-based knowledge. According to the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence, aging leads to a decline in fluid intelligence but an increase in crystallized intelligence.

On the other hand, Gardner’s theory proposes that there are multiple forms of intelligence that are independent of each other. He lists eight different types: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. This theory suggests that all these different forms of intelligence operate together to provide individuals with a multifaceted approach to cognitive tasks.

Both theories differ from Spearmans g factor theory, which posits that a single factor or measure, g, underlies intelligence and is responsible for individual differences in cognitive performance across a variety of domains. Therefore, compared to Spearmans g factor theory, Cattell and Horn and Gardner’s theories suggest that intelligence consists of different factors and is not limited to a single entity.

Learning Objectives:

1. To understand the concept of IQ and how it is calculated using mental age and chronological age.
2. To analyze Kara’s IQ score and interpret the results based on research.
3. To compare and contrast two theories of intelligence and their components in relation to Spearman’s g factor.

Learning Outcomes:

By the end of this activity, learners will be able to:
1. Explain how IQ is calculated using mental age and chronological age.
2. Analyze Kara’s IQ score and interpret the results based on research.
3. Compare and contrast two theories of intelligence and their components in relation to Spearman’s g factor.

Discussion:

Theories of intelligence attempt to explain how individuals differ in terms of their mental abilities. Two major theories of intelligence are Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory and Sternberg’s triarchic theory. Gardner’s theory proposes that there are eight distinct intelligences, including linguistic, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and logical-mathematical. In contrast, Sternberg’s theory suggests that intelligence is composed of three parts: analytical, creative, and practical.

While the two theories have some similarities, they differ in relation to Spearman’s g factor, which refers to the general intelligence factor that underlies all mental abilities. Gardner’s theory does not view intelligence as a general ability but as specific and independent domains. In contrast, Sternberg’s theory acknowledges the existence of a general intelligence factor but argues that intelligence involves more than just cognitive ability.

Overall, both theories contribute to our understanding of human intelligence, but they differ in their emphasis on the nature of intelligence as a general or specific ability.

Solution 1:
According to Sternberg’s theory of intelligence, IQ is determined by the mental age divided by the chronological age and multiplied by 100. Using this formula, Kara’s IQ would be 130 (13/10 x 100). This indicates that Kara has an above average IQ for her age and is intellectually advanced.

One theory of intelligence that differs from Sternberg’s theory is Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner suggests that there are eight different types of intelligence, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Each type of intelligence is independent and can vary in strength among individuals. In contrast, Sternberg’s theory emphasizes the importance of analytical, creative, and practical intelligence and does not recognize the diversity of multiple intelligence types.

Solution 2:
In accordance with Sternberg’s theory, Kara’s IQ is calculated as 130. Sternberg emphasizes three types of intelligence – analytical, creative, and practical. Analytical intelligence refers to the individual’s ability to solve problems and complete analytical tasks, while creative intelligence refers to the individual’s ability to deal with novel situations in a productive manner. Practical intelligence refers to the individual’s ability to apply knowledge in a real-world context.

On the other hand, Spearman’s g factor theory of intelligence asserts that intelligence is based on a singular general intelligence factor that accounts for performance across different tasks. This general factor, g, can be measured through tests such as IQ tests. Spearman did acknowledge the existence of specific abilities but believed these abilities were less important than the general factor. This differs from Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, which suggests that intelligence is comprised of eight independent intelligences.

In conclusion, different theories of intelligence emphasize varying components of intelligence and how they interact. While Sternberg’s theory identifies analytical, creative, and practical intelligence as important, Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences identifies eight types of intelligence. Spearman’s g factor theory, on the other hand, argues for the importance of a singular general factor of intelligence.

Suggested Resources/Books:
1. “Intelligence: From Concepts to Genes” by Robert Plomin
2. “Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction” by Ian J. Deary
3. “The Nature of Intelligence” by John L. Horn and Robert J. Sternberg

Similar Asked Questions:
1. How is intelligence measured?
2. What is the difference between IQ and mental age?
3. What are the different theories of intelligence?
4. How does genetics play a role in intelligence?
5. What is the correlation between IQ and academic success?

Components of Two Theories of Intelligence and their Relation to Spearmans g factor:

The two theories of intelligence we will be discussing are the multiple intelligences theory and the triarchic theory of intelligence. The multiple intelligences theory, proposed by Howard Gardner, suggests that there are multiple types of intelligence, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Each of these intelligences is independent of the others and reflects a different type of ability.

The triarchic theory of intelligence, proposed by Robert Sternberg, suggests that there are three components to intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical. Analytical intelligence refers to the ability to analyze and evaluate information to solve problems. Creative intelligence refers to the ability to generate new and innovative ideas. Practical intelligence refers to the ability to apply knowledge in real-world situations.

Both theories differ in relation to Spearmans g factor, which refers to the idea that intelligence can be measured by a single factor that underlies all mental abilities. The multiple intelligences theory suggests that there are multiple factors that contribute to intelligence, while the triarchic theory suggests that there are three distinct factors. Spearmans g factor does not fully account for the complexity of intelligence as proposed by these two theories. Rather than looking at intelligence as a single entity, these theories suggest that intelligence is composed of multiple facets and components that interact with each other to produce behavior.

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