What is infectious disease and what are the ways that they can be transmitted?

  

Complete the budget worksheet provided indicating the funding opportunities and costs related to the chosen project.The public health issue for this weeks research concerns infectious disease and outbreaks such as Ebola, measles, Zika, and Swine Flu. Infectious disease is described as an illness which is manifested from a bacterial or toxin that results in a septicity of the bodys organs and tissues. This can relate to incapacitation or death if not treated immediately. The disease can be transmitted by a variety of ways such as, orally, airborne, or touching an infected surface or individual. According to Espinal, Aldighieri, St. John, Becerra-Posada and Etienne, the World Health Organization declares infectious diseases such as the Ebola virus as a public health event of international concern which call on countries to take steps to prevent, detect, and cure the disease ifpossible (Espinal, Aldighieri, St. John, Becerra-Posada, & Etienne, 2016).The funding issue related to this problem is that many states are not equipped or funded to handle outbreaks without receiving some source of Federal funding and help from the government. This creates a problem when an outbreak occurs because the federal government has to allocate resources, time and management to the state or city in order to resolve the crisis. According to Jane Esworthy in 2014 several state legislations met to discuss the states inability to respond to infectious outbreaks during a crisis because most states rely heavily on federal funding for this type of work(Esworthy, 2015). The meeting was established as a top priority because of the reemergence of old viruses with new strains such as the measles. The goal is to establish a long term strategic plan that could assist the organization with collaborating and developing a plan to assist with funding and obtaining resources to combat current and future disease because all stakeholders internally and externally and society as a whole is effected by outbreaks. According to Bryson, an organization must be able to think, act and learn in order to have an effective and successful strategic planning process that will assist the organization in achieving its mission (Bryson, 2011). Because the states are experiencing cut backs and budget constraints associated with a sluggish economy and limited funding from the Federal government. It is imperative that states began to establish perimeters that can assist healthcare organizations and public health establishments before a major crisis is evident. There a variety of ways that an organization can solicit or request potential funding and resources in order to combat infectious disease but the two most common ways is to cut or reduce cost in categories such as salaries, training, contract labor, marketing, supplies, travel, and benefits. This approach is the most undesirable and is used when most states and public health organizations have no other resources available to utilize. The second approach which is a more desirable approach used by states and public health organizations is to request grants and funding through organizations such as the United States Department of Health and Human Service, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Office of Financial Resources. For example the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Office of Financial Resources is committed to ensuring that funds and aid is allocated to those agencies or organizations in need of resources, money and grants. CDC and OFR do this in order to prevent and combat disease around the world. According to Christa Capozzola during the year of 2015 CDC processed more than twenty thousand contracts and grants which provided more than eleven billion in funding to public health organizations around the world(Capozzola, 2015). These agencies were selected because each agency has the same objectives and goals in mind when it comes to preventing and curing infectious disease throughout the world. In the strategic planning process the thought of cutting/reducing salaries, training, contracts, labor, marketing, supplies, travel, and benefits can create more problems from an external and internal perspective and can affect the overall moral, retention rate and recruitment of new stakeholders interested in funding the organization and this influences an individuals decision to select the second approach over the first approach if this is an option
Lake Trouble Shallows Project Budget
FISCAL YEAR 2016
REVENUE
FY 2016 ACTUAL
$515
$520
FY 2016 PROPOSED
$525
$530
$535
$540
$545
$550
$555
$560
In Thousands
REVENUE
FY 2016
FY 2016
FY 2016
FY 2016
PROPOSED
ACTUAL
VARIANCE
+/- PRIOR YEAR
Fundraisers and events
100000.00
102000.00
Foundation
100000.00
125000.00
Donations
80000.00
78000.00
250000.00
250000.00
$530,000.00
$555,000.00
Grants
Miscellaneous
TOTALS
$0.00
$0.00
EXPENSES
FY 2016 ACTUAL
$410
$415
FY 2016 PROPOSED
$420
$425
$430
$435
$440
$445
$450
In Thousands
EXPENSES
FY 2016
FY 2016
FY 2016
FY 2016
PROPOSED
ACTUAL
VARIANCE
+/- PRIOR YEAR
Salaries
200,000.00
225,000.00
Benefits
50,000.00
55,000.00
Contract Labor
30,000.00
28,000.00
Rent
40,000.00
40,000.00
Utilities
15,000.00
13,000.00
Travel and meetings
8,000.00
6,000.00
Professional fees
5,000.00
7,000.00
Training/Education
8,000.00
8,000.00
Marketing/advertising
20,000.00
21,000.00
Insurance
10,000.00
13,000.00
Telephone
5,000.00
4,850.00
Web fees (website, meeting space, etc.)
3,000.00
2,500.00
10,000.00
10,000.00
Equipment
201,601.00
Supplies
7,000.00
5,000.00
Postage
8,000.00
9,000.00
Miscellanous
3,666.00
TOTALS
$422,666.00
Page 2 of 2
$447,350.00
$201,601.00
$0.00

Introduction:

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Infectious diseases and outbreaks are a public health concern that can lead to severe illness or death if not treated immediately. The Ebola virus, Zika, measles, and Swine Flu are among the illnesses that can be transmitted by touching an infected surface or individual, orally or through the air. The World Health Organization has declared infectious diseases as a public health event of international concern prompting countries to take necessary steps to prevent and detect the spread of the disease. However, the federal government’s help and funding are vital for states to handle outbreaks, which creates a funding issue.

Description:

The public health issue of infectious diseases and outbreaks such as Ebola, measles, Zika, and Swine Flu is an alarming concern. The World Health Organization has categorized these diseases as a global health threat. The federal government’s allocation of resources, time, and management is required to assist the states in handling such outbreaks. The funding issue arises when states lack adequate support to combat such crises. The lack of resources poses a threat to the organization, stakeholders, and society as a whole. It’s imperative to establish a long-term strategic plan to collaborate and obtain resources for combating current and future diseases. Organizations can solicit potential funding and resources through grants and funding such as the United States Department of Health and Human Service. The budget worksheet provided below will indicate the funding opportunities and costs related to the chosen project.

Objectives:
1. To understand the public health issue of infectious disease outbreaks and their impact on society.
2. To identify the funding issues related to infectious disease outbreaks and their management.
3. To develop a long-term strategic plan to obtain resources and funding to combat current and future infectious disease outbreaks.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Learners will be able to explain the causes and transmission modes of infectious diseases.
2. Learners will be able to analyze the impact of infectious disease outbreaks on individuals, communities, and countries.
3. Learners will be able to evaluate the funding issues related to infectious disease outbreaks and their management.
4. Learners will be able to identify various sources of funding and resources for managing infectious disease outbreaks.
5. Learners will be able to develop a long-term strategic plan to obtain resources and funding to combat current and future infectious disease outbreaks.

Budget Worksheet:

Funding Opportunities:
1. United States Department of Health and Human Services (Grant/Funding)
2. Private Foundations (Grant/Funding)
3. Public-Private Partnerships (Funding/Resource sharing)
4. Corporate Social Responsibility (Funding/Donations)

Costs:
1. Salaries (Potential reduction/cost-cutting)
2. Training (Potential reduction/cost-cutting)
3. Contract Labor (Potential reduction/cost-cutting)
4. Marketing (Potential reduction/cost-cutting)
5. Supplies (Potential reduction/cost-cutting)
6. Travel (Potential reduction/cost-cutting)
7. Benefits (Potential reduction/cost-cutting)
8. Strategic Planning Consultancy (Cost)

Solution 1: Establishing a State Infectious Disease Fund

One possible solution to the funding issue related to infectious disease outbreaks is for states to establish an Infectious Disease Fund. This fund would be used exclusively for outbreaks and could help states respond more quickly and efficiently. The cost of establishing and maintaining the fund could be offset by reducing costs in other areas such as salaries, training, contract labor, marketing, supplies, travel, and benefits. For example, states could reduce the number of unnecessary trainings or cut back on travel expenses. It is important to note that this approach is not as desirable as securing external funding.

Budget Worksheet:

| Category | Cost |
|——————-|———–|
| Salaries | $10,000 |
| Training | $5,000 |
| Contract Labor | $5,000 |
| Marketing | $2,000 |
| Supplies | $20,000 |
| Travel | $3,000 |
| Benefits | $4,000 |
| Total Cost | $49,000 |
| Expected Funding | $50,000 |
| Potential Surplus | $1,000 |

Solution 2: Requesting External Funding Through Grants

Another possible solution to the funding issue could be to request external funding through organizations such as the United States Department of Health and Human Services. By securing grants and funding, states and public health organizations can better respond to outbreaks without sacrificing other key funding areas. This approach is the most desirable approach and can be used to develop a long-term strategic plan to combat current and future infectious diseases.

Budget Worksheet:

| Category | Cost |
|——————|———–|
| Salaries | $15,000 |
| Training | $10,000 |
| Contract Labor | $7,500 |
| Marketing | $4,000 |
| Supplies | $25,000 |
| Travel | $5,000 |
| Benefits | $6,000 |
| Total Cost | $62,500 |
| Expected Funding | $75,000 |
| Potential Surplus| $12,500 |

Suggested Resources/Books:
1. “The Hot Zone: The Terrifying True Story of the Origins of the Ebola Virus” by Richard Preston
2. “Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic” by David Quammen
3. “Pandemic: Tracking Contagions, from Cholera to Ebola and Beyond” by Sonia Shah
4. “Flu: The Story Of The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused It” by Gina Kolata
5. “The Invisible Cure: Africa, the West, and the Fight Against AIDS” by Helen Epstein

Similar Asked Questions:
1. What are the most common ways an infectious disease can be transmitted?
2. How does the government allocate resources and funding when an infectious disease outbreak occurs?
3. What measures can public health organizations and states take to prevent or prepare for infectious disease outbreaks?
4. What are some of the long term effects of a pandemic on both society and the economy?
5. How can grants and funding be obtained to combat infectious diseases, specifically through organizations like the Department of Health and Human Services?

Budget Worksheet:

Funding Opportunities:
– US Department of Health and Human Services grants
– State-specific grants for infectious disease prevention and response
– Private sector donations and partnerships

Costs:
– Salaries and wages for healthcare professionals and support staff
– Training and education for healthcare professionals and community members
– Equipment and supplies for testing, treatment, and prevention
– Travel expenses for outreach and response teams
– Marketing and public outreach campaigns

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