What is Dr. Steven Pinker’s thesis on the history of global violence?

  

Everything that is required and necessary for the assignments is in the attachment.
Assignment 1

Go to the video lecture (video link below) and watch Dr. Steven Pinker’s lecture on the history of global
violence. State his thesis and list his arguments for why violence among humans has decreased throughout
the centuries. Are his arguments convincing to you? State why they are or are not convincing and discuss
your impressions of the lecture. Note the connection of themes and theories of ethics presented in Chapter
2 of your textbook on “Global Ethics and Religion”. How do these themes and theories connect to the
arguments in the lecture.
Please for this assignment refer to the book Barbara Mackinnon, Andrew Fiala:
Ethics 8th edition chapter 2 (global ethics and religion).
It should be more than 3 pages and free of plagiarism.
Assignment 2
In 2 pages state the arguments for and against ‘egoism” as reasonable or sound ethical
theory. State why you do, or do not believe the theory is true and what the relationship
between egoism, self-interest and the social contract is.
Please refer to the same book chapter 4 that includes egoism. Other material can
also be used additionally along with the book.
The chapter are quite small so please include them in the assignment otherwise it
wont be accurate.

Introduction:

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In the field of ethics and philosophy, there are several theories and beliefs that have been debated for centuries. One of the theories that are up for debate is egoism, which argues that self-interest is the only motive of human behavior. Another topic of interest in this field is the history of global violence. In this assignment, we will delve into these topics by exploring Dr. Steven Pinker’s lecture on the history of global violence and the arguments for and against egoism as a reasonable ethical theory.

Description:

The first assignment requires watching Dr. Steven Pinker’s lecture on the history of global violence and examining his thesis and arguments for the decreased level of violence among humans throughout the centuries. The assignment also requires students to provide a critical analysis of Dr. Pinker’s arguments and state their impressions of the lecture. To connect the themes and theories of ethics presented in Chapter 2 of the textbook on “Global Ethics and Religion”, students should examine how these themes relate to the arguments presented in the lecture.

The second assignment requires students to explore the arguments for and against egoism as a reasonable ethical theory. Students are required to provide a critical analysis of egoism and state why they believe it is true or false. Furthermore, students should examine the relationship between egoism, self-interest, and the social contract. To complete this assignment, students should refer to Chapter 4 of the textbook on “Ethics” by Barbara Mackinnon and Andrew Fiala, along with additional materials.

Both assignments require students to produce a well-written, plagiarism-free document that is more than three pages for the first assignment and two pages for the second assignment. The students should provide a thorough examination of the topics asked and provide their insight and analysis on the topics while incorporating concepts from the textbook.

Objectives:
1. To understand Dr. Steven Pinker’s thesis on the history of global violence.
2. To identify and evaluate arguments for why humans have become less violent over time.
3. To examine the connection between themes and theories of ethics presented in Chapter 2 of the textbook and the arguments made by Dr. Pinker.
4. To express personal impressions and thoughts on the lecture and the arguments presented.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Describe Dr. Steven Pinker’s thesis on the history of global violence, including his arguments for why violence has decreased over time.
2. Evaluate the persuasiveness of Dr. Pinker’s arguments for decreasing violence among humans.
3. Analyze the connection between the themes and theories of ethics in Chapter 2 of the textbook and the arguments presented by Dr. Pinker.
4. Express personal thoughts and opinions on the ideas presented by Dr. Pinker and relate them to the themes and theories discussed in the textbook.

Assignment 1

Introduction:
The assignment requires watching Dr. Steven Pinker’s lecture on the history of global violence and analyzing his arguments. The objective is to evaluate his thesis and arguments, and understand their connection to the themes and theories presented in Chapter 2 of the textbook on “Global Ethics and Religion”.

Dr. Pinker’s Thesis and Arguments:
Dr. Pinker’s thesis is that human violence has decreased over the centuries due to the rise of the state, the expansion of commerce, the growth of literacy, and the development of cosmopolitanism. He argues that the state has a monopoly on violence, and as it has become more centralized, it has reduced the amount of violence within society. The expansion of commerce has also played a significant role in reducing violence by increasing interdependence and reducing the need for violent conflict. Dr. Pinker also points to the growth of literacy, which has increased empathy and understanding between individuals, as well as the development of cosmopolitanism, which has allowed for the recognition of common humanity and a decrease in tribalism.

Evaluation:
Dr. Pinker’s arguments are well-supported by historical evidence and data. However, there are possible counterarguments that he does not address, such as the fact that modern societies still experience violence, such as wars and terrorist attacks. Nevertheless, his arguments are convincing and do present a compelling case for the decrease in violence among humans.

Connection to Ethics:
The themes and theories of ethics presented in Chapter 2 of the textbook appear to support Dr. Pinker’s arguments. For example, the idea of cosmopolitanism aligns with the ethical theory of universalism, which emphasizes treating all people as moral equals. The theme of interdependence also aligns with the ethical theory of consequentialism, which emphasizes actions that result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Overall, the themes and theories of ethics support the idea that the decrease in violence among humans is a positive development.

Impressions:
Overall, the lecture was informative and engaging. The evidence and arguments presented by Dr. Pinker provide an intriguing perspective on the history of violence among humans. The connection between the lecture and the themes and theories of ethics presented in the textbook reinforced the importance of understanding the ethical implications of violence and its diminishment.

Assignment 2

Introduction:
The assignment requires stating the arguments for and against “egoism” as a reasonable or sound ethical theory. The objective is to analyze and evaluate the theory, and identify its relationship to self-interest and social contract theory. The textbook chapter 4 on “Egoism and Altruism” is the primary source of reference.

Arguments for and against Egoism:
Egoism is a theory that emphasizes self-interest as the primary motivation for human action. One argument in favor of egoism is that it acknowledges the importance of individual autonomy, and allows individuals to make their own decisions based on their self-interest. However, a counterargument is that egoism fails to account for the importance of moral principles, such as justice and fairness, and may lead to behavior that harms others.

Evaluation:
The arguments for egoism appear to have some merit, as it is important to recognize the value of individual autonomy and the right to pursue self-interest. However, the counterargument against egoism highlights the importance of moral principles, and the fact that self-interest may not always align with the greater good. Overall, the theory of egoism seems to have some limitations when it comes to ethical decision making.

Relationship to Self-Interest and Social Contract Theory:
Egoism and self-interest are closely interconnected, as they both emphasize the importance of individual desires and motivations. However, social contract theory emphasizes the importance of balancing individual self-interest with the needs and desires of the broader society. The social contract recognizes the importance of individual autonomy, but also emphasizes the need for cooperation and consideration of others in order to maintain a functioning society.

Impressions:
Overall, the assignment provided an interesting perspective on the theory of egoism, and its relationship to self-interest and social contract theory. The assignment highlighted the importance of considering ethical principles and the greater good in decision making, and the limitations of theories that emphasize individual autonomy and self-interest.

Suggested Resources/Books:

For Assignment 1:
– “The Better Angels of Our Nature” by Steven Pinker
– “Enlightenment Now” by Steven Pinker
– “The Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War” by John Lewis Gaddis
– “Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History” by Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast

For Assignment 2:
– “Moral Reasoning: A Philosophical Approach” by Victor Grassian
– “An Introduction to Ethics” by John Deigh
– “The Right and the Good” by W.D. Ross

Similar asked questions – Assignment 1:

1. Can Pinker’s explanation for the decrease in violence be applied to specific regions in the world?
2. How does a moral relativist approach the argument of the decrease of violence presented by Pinker?
3. What role does religion play in the decrease of violence?
4. What is the counterargument to Pinker’s explanation for the decrease in violence?
5. How has technology contributed to the decrease in violence?

Similar asked questions – Assignment 2:

1. How does egoism relate to ethical egoism?
2. What is the relationship between ethical egoism and social contract theory?
3. Can egoism be used as a moral theory in today’s society?
4. What is the criticism of egoism as a moral theory?
5. In what ways is egoism different from altruism?

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