What is Dr. Steven Pinker’s thesis about the decrease of violence among humans throughout the centuries?

  

Everything that is required and necessary for the assignments is in the attachment.
Assignment 1

Go to the video lecture (video link below) and watch Dr. Steven Pinker’s lecture on the
history of global violence. State his thesis and list his arguments for why violence among
humans has decreased throughout the centuries. Are his arguments convincing to you?
State why they are or are not convincing and discuss your impressions of the lecture. Note
the connection of themes and theories of ethics presented in Chapter 2 of your textbook on
“Global Ethics and Religion”. How do these themes and theories connect to the arguments
in the lecture.
Please for this assignment refer to the book Barbara Mackinnon, Andrew Fiala:
Ethics 8th edition chapter 2 (global ethics and religion).
It should be more than 3 pages and free of plagiarism.
Assignment 2
In 2 pages state the arguments for and against ‘egoism” as reasonable or sound ethical
theory. State why you do, or do not believe the theory is true and what the relationship
between egoism, self-interest and the social contract is.
Please refer to the same book chapter 4 that includes egoism. Other material can
also be used additionally along with the book.
The chapter are quite small so please include them in the assignment otherwise it
wont be accurate.

Introduction:

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In today’s world, there is a widespread belief that violence and conflicts are increasing across the globe. However, Dr. Steven Pinker, a renowned psychologist and linguistic expert, disagrees with this notion. In his lecture on the history of global violence, Dr. Pinker argues that violence among humans has decreased throughout the centuries, and supports his arguments with several convincing examples. This assignment aims to explore Dr. Pinker’s thesis, arguments, and whether or not his arguments are convincing.

Description:

In the video lecture assigned for this assignment, Dr. Steven Pinker’s thesis is that violence among humans has decreased significantly throughout history. Dr. Pinker supports his thesis with several factors, including the rise of civilization, increased economic prosperity, and the spread of moral reasoning. He also explains in detail, how the decline of violence has been possible in different regions of the world, using graphs, statistics, and real-life examples such as the Enlightenment period and the rise of humanitarianism.

In this assignment, we are supposed to evaluate Dr. Pinker’s arguments and determine whether or not we find them convincing. Additionally, we are tasked with commenting on how the themes and theories of ethics presented in chapter 2 of the textbook “Global Ethics and Religion” relate to the arguments in the lecture.

For this assignment, Barbara Mackinnon and Andrew Fiala’s Ethics 8th edition chapter 2 (Global Ethics and Religion) will serve as a primary source of reference. The assignment must be at least three pages long, free from plagiarism and should cover all the aspects mentioned in the instructions.

Heading 1: Dr. Steven Pinker’s Lecture on the History of Global Violence.

Heading 2: The Connection between Dr. Pinker’s Arguments and the Themes and Theories of Ethics in Chapter 2 of “Global Ethics and Religion.”

Heading 3: Evaluation of Dr. Pinker’s Arguments for the Decline of Violence Among Humans.

Heading 4: Conclusion on the Convincing Nature of Dr. Pinker’s Arguments.

Heading 5: “Egoism” as a Reasonable or Sound Ethical Theory and its Relationship with Self-interest and the Social Contract.

Heading 6: Arguments for and Against “Egoism” as a Sound Ethical Theory.

Heading 7: Personal Opinion on the Soundness of the Egoism Ethical Theory.

Heading 8: Discussion on the Relationship Between Egoism, Self-interest, and the Social Contract.

Heading 9: Conclusion on the Validity of the Egoism Ethical Theory.

Objectives:
1. To understand the historical perspective of global violence presented by Dr. Steven Pinker.
2. To analyze the thesis and arguments presented by Dr. Steven Pinker.
3. To evaluate the connection between the themes and theories of ethics presented in Chapter 2 of the textbook and the arguments in the lecture.
4. To develop critical thinking skills and effectively communicate ideas through writing.

Learning outcomes:
1. Students will be able to identify the historical trends in global violence presented by Dr. Steven Pinker.
2. Students will be able to analyze the arguments presented by Dr. Steven Pinker and evaluate their persuasiveness.
3. Students will be able to connect the themes and theories of ethics presented in the textbook to the arguments presented in the lecture.
4. Students will be able to demonstrate critical thinking skills and effectively communicate their ideas through writing.

Heading 1: Assignment 1
Heading 2: Objectives
Heading 3: Learning Outcomes

Heading 1: Assignment 2
Heading 2: Objectives
Heading 3: Learning Outcomes

Solution 1:

Thesis and Arguments for the decrease of global violence by Steven Pinker

Dr. Steven Pinker’s lecture on the history of global violence presents the thesis that violence among humans has decreased throughout the centuries. He backed up this thesis with several arguments. Pinker presented evidence that countries with high levels of wealth and human development have lower levels of violence. He highlighted how the Enlightenment and humanism have contributed to the decrease in violence as they helped bring about the end of slavery, witch hunts, and other harmful practices. Pinker also stated that the institutions of democracy, trade, and international laws contribute to decreasing violence.

The arguments by Pinker that violence has decreased over time are convincing. Pinker provided statistics and evidence to support his thesis, and his analysis is comprehensive and thought-provoking. The themes and theories of ethics presented in Chapter 2 of the Ethics 8th edition textbook on “Global Ethics and Religion” connects well to the arguments in Pinker’s lecture. Chapter 2 of the textbook focuses on global ethics, which seeks to create a shared understanding of what is right or wrong, regardless of one’s cultural or religious background. Pinker’s thesis and arguments support a global ethical view of diminishing violence among humans.

Solution 2:

Arguments for and against ‘egoism’ as reasonable or sound ethical theory

The theory of egoism asserts that individuals have a moral obligation to only act in their self-interest, where the pursuit of self-interest is the highest moral good. There are arguments for and against this theory. One argument for egoism is that it acknowledges that individuals have different goals and desires, which cannot always be resolved through altruistic actions. It also places the responsibility of determining and pursuing one’s own happiness on each individual, which can be empowering.

Conversely, there are arguments against egoism as a viable ethical theory. Firstly, it ignores the consequences an action has on others. The moral implications of an action would only revolve around how it affects the egoist. Secondly, it ignores the benefits and necessity of empathy, cooperation, and altruism. This poses a threat to social life and differing relationships.

Egoism is not a true ethical theory because it promotes individualism at the expense of others. The social contract is a theoretical construct that explains how individuals surrender certain rights and freedoms to the state in exchange for protection and benefits provided by the government. The relationship between egoism, self-interest and the social contract is that, the egoist may justify an acceptable sacrifice of individual rights to the state for social order, making the goal to continue pursuing one’s self-interest.

In conclusion, the arguments for and against egoism imply that this theory is not sound or reasonable in ethical reasoning. While it is important to prioritize individual welfare and personal goals to an extent, it must be done in the context of one’s impact on or role in society.

Suggested Resources/Books for Ethics Assignments

1. “The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined” by Steven Pinker: This book offers a more detailed analysis of the arguments presented in Dr. Pinker’s lecture on the history of global violence.

2. “Practical Ethics” by Peter Singer: This book provides a comprehensive exploration of various ethical theories and applies them to practical situations.

3. “Ethics and Religion: A Very Short Introduction” by Roger Trigg: This book offers a clear and concise introduction to the intersection of ethics and religion, a theme discussed in Chapter 2 of your textbook.

4. “The Nicomachean Ethics” by Aristotle: This classic work provides a thorough exploration of virtue and its relationship to ethics.

5. “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau: This book provides an in-depth exploration of the relationship between self-interest and the social contract, a theme discussed in Assignment 2.

Similar Asked Questions for Assignment 1

1. How has global violence decreased throughout history?
2. What are the main arguments for the decline of violence among humans?
3. How does religion impact global ethics?
4. What is the relationship between violence and human progress?
5. Is it possible to achieve a world without violence?

Similar Asked Questions for Assignment 2

1. What is egoism and how does it relate to ethical theory?
2. What are the arguments for and against egoism?
3. How does egoism impact one’s perception of self-interest and the social contract?
4. Can egoism be considered a reasonable ethical theory?
5. What other ethical theories can be compared and contrasted with egoism?

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