What cognitive and/or behavioral issues are involved for James?

  

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Module 4

Discussion Instructions:

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Review the attached scoring guidelines for discussion assignments.
Assume you were counseling people with the following presenting problems. Read each of the three scenarios and then address the following questions for each person from an Cognitive-Behavioral perspective in a 500-700 word essay
(*note: Your total discussion post should be 500-700 words, so aim for around 200 words per scenario and you’ll be in the right spot.)

What cognitive and/or behavioral issues are involved?
What would be your counseling goals (i.e. change cognitive schema, improve behavior, etc. ) for each of these persons?
What two specific CBT techniques could you use (Give examples)? (For example, Socratic dialog, behavioral activation, psychoeducation, etc.)
This discussion should be 500-700 words (+/- 200 words per scenario).
You may use chapter ten of your textbook as one source.
You are to include two additional scholarly articles as cited sources in the discussion. (Note: Websites will not count for these sources; your sources must be scholarly journal articles found in the UWA online library.

James

My fear is that I am empty and vacant inside. Ive never really had to look at myself before now, but, since my husband left me, I am lost. I feel deserted, abandoned, isolated, and I fear that I cannot make it alone. I depended on him to give me a sense of worth, and now that hes gone, I just feel a void.

Susan

So rarely do I feel calm. I feel anxious basically from the time I wake up to the time I go to bed. I’m able to work and handle all of my family responsibilities but the anxiety always seem to be there, like an unwanted visitor. What can I do to get some relief?

Michael

When I hear about all of the terrible things that are happening in the world (mass shootings and hate crimes, terrorism, poverty, and homelessness), I get so sad. I’ve started sleeping more and doing less things with my friends. I’m afraid they are going to stop inviting me to things because I’ve cancelled so often lately.

Introduction:

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of counseling that focuses on identifying and changing negative thought patterns and behaviors. In this discussion, we will examine three cases from a CBT perspective. Each case presents unique cognitive and/or behavioral issues that require attention. We will analyze the presenting problems, set counseling goals, and identify two specific CBT techniques that could be used.

Description:

Case 1: James

James is struggling with feelings of emptiness and abandonment after his husband left him. He is experiencing a strong sense of worthlessness and feels like he cannot make it alone. From a CBT perspective, James is likely engaging in negative self-talk that reinforces his belief that he is worthless. His goal in counseling would be to change his cognitive schema to a more positive, self-affirming belief system. CBT techniques that could be used include cognitive restructuring, which involves identifying and challenging negative thoughts, and behavioral activation, which involves setting goals and engaging in activities that bring a sense of accomplishment and mastery.

Case 2: Susan

Susan struggles with anxiety that seems to be ever-present. She is able to function in her daily life but experiences persistent feelings of nervousness. From a CBT perspective, Susan may be engaging in cognitive distortions, such as catastrophizing or jumping to conclusions. Her counseling goal would be to identify and challenge these cognitive distortions. CBT techniques that could help Susan include exposure therapy, which involves gradually facing feared situations, and relaxation training, which aims to reduce anxiety through breathing and muscle relaxation exercises.

Case 3: Michael

Michael is experiencing sadness and has withdrawn from social activities after hearing about violence and injustice in the world. He fears that his friends will stop inviting him to things. From a CBT perspective, Michael may be catastrophizing and engaging in avoidance behaviors. His counseling goal would be to change his cognitive schema to a more realistic, balanced view of the world. CBT techniques that could help Michael include mindfulness-based CBT, which involves learning to observe thoughts without judgment, and behavioral experiments, which aim to test negative beliefs in real-world settings.

Objectives:

To use Cognitive-Behavioral therapy techniques to identify specific cognitive and behavioral issues involved in the presenting problems of James, Susan, and Michael.

To develop counseling goals that address the cognitive and behavioral issues presented for each of the three individuals.

To identify two specific Cognitive-Behavioral therapy techniques that can be applied to each of the presenting problems

Learning Outcomes:

By the end of the discussion, students should be able to apply Cognitive-Behavioral therapy techniques to identify and analyze presenting problems, develop counseling goals, and choose appropriate Cognitive-Behavioral therapy techniques for specific individuals.

By the end of the discussion, students should be able to explain the specific cognitive and behavioral issues involved in the presenting problems of James, Susan, and Michael.

By the end of the discussion, students should be able to identify two specific Cognitive-Behavioral therapy techniques that can be applied to each of the presenting problems

Cognitive and Behavioral Issues:

James: Facing feelings of worthlessness and emptiness because of the absence of someone who gave him a sense of worth.

Susan: Struggling with constant anxiety that affects her emotional and mental state.

Michael: Experiencing sadness and isolation due to the constant exposure to negative news affecting his social life and other activities.

Counseling Goals:

For James: Encouraging self-discovery and reducing his dependence on external factors for a sense of worth by changing his cognitive schema.

For Susan: Addressing her anxiety by teaching relaxation techniques, increasing self-esteem, and identifying the underlying cause of anxiety.

For Michael: Addressing his sadness and isolation by promoting positive thinking and reducing avoidance through behavioral activation.

CBT Techniques:

For James: Cognitive Restructuring to challenge negative self-talk and beliefs, and Mindfulness training to increase self-awareness and emotional control.

For Susan: Relaxation Training to control the physical symptoms of anxiety and Cognitive Reframing to challenge distorted thoughts and beliefs.

For Michael: Behavioral Activation to set specific goals and plan activities to promote positive behaviors and Graded Exposure to overcome avoidance behaviors gradually.

Solution 1:

James: Overcoming Abandonment Issues

For James, his cognitive and behavioral issues involve feelings of abandonment since his husband left him. He feels lost, deserted, abandoned, and isolated, which is affecting his sense of self-worth. His cognitive-behavioral therapy goals will include changing his negative thoughts about himself and his ability to live independently. One technique that could be useful to James is cognitive restructuring, which entails challenging his negative thoughts and replacing them with positive affirmations.

Another technique that could be helpful is behavioral activation, which involves scheduling activities that James enjoys and giving himself rewards for completing them. Engaging in pleasant activities will boost his sense of self-worth and promote a positive outlook on life.

Solution 2:

Michael: Managing Anxiety Due to Global Events

For Michael, his cognitive and behavioral issues involve constant sadness due to global events. He feels sad, has lost interest in activities he once enjoyed. His goals in therapy would be to challenge his negative thoughts and engage in activities he once enjoyed. One technique that could be helpful to Michael is cognitive restructuring, which entails challenging his negative thoughts about the news and replacing them with realistic interpretations.

Another technique that could be helpful is behavior activation, which includes scheduling pleasurable activities and rewarding himself in the process to help him regain his interest in life.

Suggested Resources/Books:
1. “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Basics and Beyond” by Judith S. Beck
2. “Mind Over Mood: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think” by Dennis Greenberger and Christine A. Padesky
3. “Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy” by David D. Burns

Similar questions:
1. How can Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy help with anxiety and depression?
2. What are some specific techniques used in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?
3. Can Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy be used to treat trauma-related disorders?
4. How does Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy differ from other forms of therapy?
5. Is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy effective for long-term change?

Cognitive-Behavioral Issues Involved:
James is struggling with feelings of emptiness and abandonment following the end of his marriage. He also places his sense of worth on external factors rather than internal ones. Susan experiences constant anxiety, which may stem from negative thought patterns and anxiety-provoking behaviors. Michael is experiencing symptoms of depression and possibly avoiding social situations due to his sadness and fear about the state of the world.

Counseling Goals:
For James, the counseling goals would be to help him develop a greater sense of self-worth that is not dependent on others and to find fulfillment outside of his marriage. For Susan, the counseling goals would be to teach her how to manage her anxiety effectively and reduce anxious behaviors. For Michael, the counseling goals would be to alleviate symptoms of depression, challenge negative thought patterns, and increase social engagement.

CBT Techniques:
For James, a CBT technique that could be used is cognitive restructuring, which involves challenging negative thoughts and replacing them with more rational ones. Another technique that could be helpful is behavioral activation, which involves encouraging clients to engage in enjoyable and meaningful activities to improve mood and decrease feelings of emptiness. For Susan, exposure therapy, which involves gradually exposing clients to anxiety-provoking situations, could be an effective technique. Another technique that could be useful is mindfulness, which involves increasing awareness of the present moment and reducing reactivity to negative thoughts and emotions. For Michael, cognitive restructuring and behavioral activation could be helpful techniques, as well as relaxation training, which involves teaching clients to relax their muscles and decrease physical symptoms of anxiety and depression.

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