What are the two IVs for the research on performance-based funding and its effects on developmental students in higher education?

  

Considering your dissertation research interests (and perhaps using the same IVs and DVs you identified in the discussion questions from previous modules), identify two IVs (each with 2 categories) and three DVs that are measured on continuous scales. Think of DV measures that probably are moderately correlated with each other because they are measuring different components of the same or similar concepts (e.g., three different measures of academic performance). Given these variables and design, what information would a factorial MANOVA provide you? What more would you want to know if you get significant results in the factorial MANOVA? Why would this be significant to your research? (Research support is not required for this question.)My research is on performance-based funding and how it effects developmental students in higher education (community college) Performance-based funding on higher education Developmental classes – Reading, Writing, Mathwill it effect admittance for the developmental student, weaken academics, instructor motivation, student motivationhttp://www.ncsl.org/research/education/performance-funding.aspxhttps://www.americanprogress.org/issues/higher-education/report/2012/08/07/12036/performance-based-funding-of-higher-education/

Introduction:

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Performance-based funding in higher education has become an increasingly popular way to allocate resources to educational institutions. However, concerns have been raised about its effectiveness, particularly in the case of developmental students in community colleges. The aim of this research is to determine how performance-based funding affects the admittance of developmental students in community colleges and its impact on academics, instructor motivation, and student motivation. To achieve this, two independent variables (IVs) with two categories each and three dependent variables (DVs) measured on continuous scales have been identified for the study.

Description:

The study will focus on investigating the impact of performance-based funding on developmental students in community colleges. The study will analyze the impact of two IVs (performance-based funding and developmental classes in Reading, Writing, and Math) and three DVs that measure different aspects of academic performance. The study is designed to identify any correlations between the three DVs and determine if they are measuring different components of the same or similar concepts.

An analysis of the data will be conducted using a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). This analysis will help identify any significant differences in the means of the DVs across the categories of the independent variables. If significant results are obtained, further analyses such as post-hoc tests will be conducted to determine which categories of the IVs significantly differ from one another.

The study results are significant for the field of higher education, as it will provide insights into how performance-based funding affects developmental students and its impact on academics, instructor motivation, and student motivation. The study results can help institutions, policymakers, and researchers to better understand how to support developmental students and improve their academic performance.

Objectives:

– To identify two independent variables (each with 2 categories) and three dependent variables measured on continuous scales.
– To understand the use of factorial MANOVA in analyzing the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables.
– To determine the impact of performance-based funding on developmental students in higher education.
– To assess the effect of performance-based funding on student motivation, instructor motivation, academic achievement, and admittance for developmental students.

Learning Outcomes:

By the end of this module, students will be able to:

– Develop research questions that address the impact of performance-based funding on developmental students in higher education.
– Identify independent variables that have two categories each and three dependent variables that are measured on continuous scales.
– Understand the application of factorial MANOVA in analyzing the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables.
– Analyze the effect of performance-based funding on student motivation, instructor motivation, academic achievement, and admittance for developmental students.
– Interpret the results of a factorial MANOVA and identify the significance of any significant findings in relation to one’s research.

Factorial MANOVA:

A factorial MANOVA would provide valuable insights into the impact of performance-based funding on the dependent variables: student motivation, instructor motivation, academic achievement, and admittance for developmental students. By conducting a factorial MANOVA, researchers can determine whether any of the independent variables (performance-based funding) significantly predicted variability in one or more of the dependent variables. The use of a factorial MANOVA can help reduce error variance and increase the statistical power of the analysis.

Additional Information:

If significant results are found, researchers may want to conduct follow-up analyses to better understand the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. For example, researchers may use follow-up ANOVAs to determine which independent variable(s) significantly predicted variability in the dependent variables. Additionally, researchers may conduct post-hoc tests to determine which specific levels of the independent variables significantly differ from one another. The significance of these findings would be important for informing policies related to performance-based funding in higher education, particularly with respect to the impact on developmental students.

Solution 1:

IVs:
1. Performance-based funding (2 categories: funded/not funded)
2. Developmental classes (2 categories: enrolled/not enrolled)

DVs:
1. Reading proficiency (measured on a continuous scale)
2. Writing proficiency (measured on a continuous scale)
3. Math proficiency (measured on a continuous scale)

A factorial MANOVA would provide information on the main effects of both IVs and the interaction effect between them on the three DVs. This would help identify if there are significant differences in the mean scores of the three DVs for those who are funded versus those who are not funded, those who are enrolled in developmental classes versus those who are not enrolled, and if there is an interaction effect between these two IVs. Significance in the results would suggest that there are differences in the mean scores between the different categories of the IVs, indicating that performance-based funding and enrollment in developmental classes may have an impact on the academic performance of students.

If significant results are found, further analyses such as post-hoc tests could be conducted to identify which categories of the IVs are significantly different from each other. It would also be important to explore other variables that may be associated with the DVs such as socioeconomic status, gender, and age. This information would provide valuable insights into the impact of performance-based funding and enrollment in developmental courses on academic performance among community college students and could guide policy decisions.

Solution 2:

IVs:
1. Instructor motivation (2 categories: motivated/not motivated)
2. Student motivation (2 categories: motivated/not motivated)

DVs:
1. Class attendance (measured on a continuous scale)
2. Class participation (measured on a continuous scale)
3. Grades (measured on a continuous scale)

A factorial MANOVA would provide information on the main effects of both IVs and the interaction effect between them on the three DVs. This would help identify if there are significant differences in the mean scores of the three DVs for motivated versus not motivated instructors, motivated versus not motivated students, and if there is an interaction effect between these two IVs. Significance in the results would suggest that there are differences in the mean scores between the different categories of the IVs, indicating that instructor and student motivation may have an impact on class attendance, participation, and grades.

If significant results are found, further analyses such as post-hoc tests could be conducted to identify which categories of the IVs are significantly different from each other. It would also be important to explore other variables that may be associated with the DVs such as class size, teaching style, and student engagement. This information would provide valuable insights into the impact of instructor and student motivation on academic performance in higher education and could guide interventions to improve student outcomes.

Suggested Resources/Books:
1. “Performance Based Funding for Higher Education” by Kevin Dougherty (published by the National Center for Postsecondary Education, 2019) provides an overview of performance-based funding policies and examines their effects on institutions and students.
2. “The Impact of Performance-Based Funding on Higher Education” edited by Bradley E. Hansen and Kevin J. Dougherty (published by Harvard Education Press, 2018) discusses the impact of performance-based funding policies on higher education and includes case studies from various states.

Similar Asked Questions:
1. What are the effects of performance-based funding on student outcomes in higher education?
2. How do performance-based funding policies affect institutional behavior and decision-making?
3. What are the potential unintended consequences of performance-based funding policies?
4. What are some alternative funding models for higher education?
5. What is the relationship between funding and access to developmental classes in community colleges?

Factorial MANOVA:
A factorial MANOVA is a statistical analysis that can help evaluate the effects of two or more independent variables on multiple continuous dependent variables. In this case, a factorial MANOVA could be useful in examining the impact of performance-based funding on developmental students’ academic performance and instructor/student motivation. The analysis would provide information on whether there are significant main effects or interactions between the IVs (e.g., performance-based funding and developmental class type) and the DVs (e.g., reading, writing, and math scores). If significant results are found, further analyses could be conducted to explore the nature and direction of these effects.

Significance to Research:
Understanding the impact of performance-based funding on developmental students in higher education is important for policymakers and educators. A factorial MANOVA can provide valuable information on how different aspects of performance-based funding policies may impact students’ academic performance and motivation. This, in turn, can inform discussions around the design and implementation of effective funding policies for community colleges and other higher education institutions.

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