What are the two IVs (each with 2 categories) and three DVs that are measured on continuous scales in the research on performance-based funding and how it affects developmental students in higher education?

  

Considering your dissertation research interests (and perhaps using the same IVs and DVs you identified in the discussion questions from previous modules), identify two IVs (each with 2 categories) and three DVs that are measured on continuous scales. Think of DV measures that probably are moderately correlated with each other because they are measuring different components of the same or similar concepts (e.g., three different measures of academic performance). Given these variables and design, what information would a factorial MANOVA provide you? What more would you want to know if you get significant results in the factorial MANOVA? Why would this be significant to your research? (Research support is not required for this question.)My research is on performance-based funding and how it effects developmental students in higher education (community college)Performance-based funding on higher educationDevelopmental classes – Reading, Writing, Mathwill it effect admittance for the developmental student, weaken academics, instructor motivation, student motivationhttp://www.ncsl.org/research/education/performance-funding.aspxhttps://www.americanprogress.org/issues/higher-education/report/2012/08/07/12036/performance-based-funding-of-higher-education/

Introduction:
Performance-based funding is one of the most significant changes occurring in higher education, and it is gaining popularity across various states in America. This phenomenon seeks to increase accountability in higher education by tying funding to performance metrics in areas such as graduation rates, student course completion, and job placement rates. While this system seems like an effective way to push educators to improve their student outcomes, it may have various adverse effects on students’ performance, especially those in developmental classes.

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Description:
In this study, we focus on the impact of performance-based funding on developmental students in higher education, specifically in community colleges. We aim to determine how performance-based funding affects the admittance of developmental students, weakens academics, instructor motivation, and student motivation. For this, we will identify two independent variables (IVs) with two categories each and three dependent variables (DVs) measured on continuous scales. The three DV measures used in this study will be designed to examine different aspects of academic performance. We will use Factorial MANOVA to provide the necessary information that we need to validate our study’s findings. Additionally, we will explore the causes and correlations between the DVs and IVs to understand the possible links between the components. If significant results are obtained from the Factorial MANOVA, we will seek to identify further information to support our research. The research findings will be critical in understanding the impact performance-based funding has on students, instructors, and communities in the higher education sector.

Solution 1:

IV 1: Performance-based Funding (2 categories – Yes or No)
IV 2: Developmental Education (2 categories – Required or Optional)
DV 1: Academic Performance in Reading (continuous scale)
DV 2: Academic Performance in Writing (continuous scale)
DV 3: Academic Performance in Math (continuous scale)

A factorial MANOVA would provide information on the effects of the two IVs (Performance-based Funding and Developmental Education) on the three DVs (Academic Performance in Reading, Writing, and Math) simultaneously. It will determine if there is a statistically significant interaction between the two IVs. Significant results in the factorial MANOVA would tell us the overall effect of Performance-based Funding and Developmental Education on the Academic Performance of the students. However, further analysis will be required to determine the specific effects of each IV on each DV since the MANOVA only provides an overall effect and does not tell us the specifics. This information would be significant to the research as it would help determine the impact of Performance-Based Funding on Developmental Education students’ academic performance.

Solution 2:

IV 1: Admittance for Developmental Students (2 categories – Yes or No)
IV 2: Type of Developmental Education (2 categories – Traditional or Online)
DV 1: Instructor Motivation (continuous scale)
DV 2: Student Motivation (continuous scale)
DV 3: Academic Performance (continuous scale)

A factorial MANOVA would provide information on the effects of the two IVs (Admittance for Developmental Students and Type of Developmental Education) on the three DVs (Instructor Motivation, Student Motivation, and Academic Performance) simultaneously. It will determine if there is a statistically significant interaction between the two IVs. Significant results in the factorial MANOVA would tell us the overall effect of Admittance for Developmental Students and Type of Developmental Education on Instructor Motivation, Student Motivation, and Academic Performance. However, further analysis will be required to determine the specific effects of each IV on each DV since the MANOVA only provides an overall effect and does not tell us the specifics. This information would be significant to the research as it would help determine the impact of Admittance for Developmental Students and Type of Developmental Education on Instructor Motivation, Student Motivation, and Academic Performance.

Suggested Resources/Books
1. “Performance-Based Funding for Higher Education” by Kevin Dougherty
2. “Academic Performance Metrics for Higher Education” by Peter Ewell

Similar asked questions:
1. What are the effects of performance-based funding on the quality of education in community colleges?
2. How does performance-based funding affect the enrollment of developmental students in community colleges?
3. Do faculty members’ perceptions of performance-based funding relate to their motivation to teach?
4. How does performance-based funding influence students’ educational goals and motivation?
5. What are the main concerns associated with performance-based funding in higher education?

Factorial MANOVA in Research
A factorial MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) can be used to analyze the interaction effects between two or more independent variables (IVs) and multiple dependent variables (DVs) that should be moderately correlated with each other. In this context, the factorial MANOVA would help study the impact of performance-based funding as one IV and developmental classes (reading, writing, math) as the other IV on three DVs – admittance for developmental students, weakening of academics, instructor motivation, or student motivation.

If significant results are obtained in the factorial MANOVA, further analysis can include post-hoc tests to determine which IVs have a significant effect on DVs. It is also possible to conduct simple effects analysis to understand the effect of each IV on each DV separately.

This information would be significant to the research on performance-based funding and how it affects developmental students in higher education. It would help to understand the relationship between performance-based funding and developmental classes, as well as the potential impact on academics, instructor motivation, and student motivation. Therefore, a factorial MANOVA would be a valuable tool to use in this study.

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