What are the leading health indicators according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services?


1. Review the following:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Leading health indicators Retrieved fromhttp://healthypeople.gov/2020/LHI/default.aspx. Work group for community health and development at the University of Kansas. (2012). Section 5. analyzing community problems: Community Tool Box. Retrieved fromhttp://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/section_1017.aspx.2. Discuss the following in your post:Create three scenarios where you would apply the levels of prevention.2 pages at most


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The world of public health looks at prevention in a unique way, analyzing how to use different strategies to prevent certain diseases and conditions from occurring or progressing. Prevention is usually approached through three levels that refer to a set of activities taken to reduce exposure to disease or injury. These levels aim to reduce and prevent the incidence of morbidity and mortality rates in the population. In this post, we will analyze the levels of prevention in public health and provide three scenarios where it can be applied.


The Levels of Prevention in Public Health:

Primary prevention is the most effective way of ensuring that diseases or injuries are prevented from occurring entirely. Primary prevention measures include the promotion of healthy lifestyle behaviours, for example, immunization, regular exercise, healthy eating habits, and avoiding tobacco and alcohol. Secondary prevention aims to intervene and identify the diseases or injury’s early stages in the population and prevent severe illness or death. Tertiary prevention aims to control and manage complications caused by diseases or injuries, thereby improving the quality of life of those affected.

Three Scenarios Applying the Levels of Prevention:

Scenario One: One scenario where the three levels of prevention can be applied is in the management of non-communicable diseases. Healthcare interventions that engage individuals in healthy activities and social networks can encourage people to adopt positive health behaviours that prevent such conditions. Primary prevention efforts, such as smoking cessation programs, healthy eating initiatives, and physical activity programs, can prevent non-communicable diseases from occurring. Secondary prevention initiatives, such as screenings, can detect conditions in their initial stages and prevent complications. Tertiary prevention measures, such as chronic disease management, can enhance the quality of life of those living with such conditions.

Scenario Two: Another scenario involves the prevention of communicable diseases in a community. Primary prevention measures, such as vaccination programs, can help build herd immunity and prevent infections’ spread. Secondary prevention measures, such as early detection and diagnosis, can reduce the disease’s spread by isolating infected individuals to reduce contact with others. Tertiary prevention measures, such as provision of healthcare services focused on quality of life improvements, can serve to manage complications from such conditions.

Scenario Three: Finally, public health interventions for substance abuse may benefit from the application of the three levels of prevention. Primary prevention measures, such as awareness campaigns, can educate individuals about the harmful effects of substance abuse, thus preventing them from trying it. Secondary prevention measures, such as rapid screening, can identify individuals with substance use disorders early on and prevent chronic addiction. Tertiary prevention measures, such as providing medical care and psychosocial support, can help those who are in the process of recovery.


The levels of prevention are an essential part of public health where the strict application of strategies could reduce the incidence of morbidity and mortality rates. The scenarios provided above are indicative of how public health officials can implement the levels of prevention to stop disease progression in their communities. Efforts should be made towards establishing proactive and cost-effective health programs that can maximize the benefits of the different levels of prevention.

1. Review the leading health indicators outlined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
2. Analyze community problems using the approaches outlined in the Work Group for Community Health and Development at the University of Kansas.
3. Apply the three levels of prevention to different scenarios.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Understand the leading health indicators of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and their relevance to public health.
2. Develop skills in analyzing community problems using evidence-based approaches.
3. Identify and apply the three levels of prevention to different scenarios.

Heading 1: Reviewing Leading Health Indicators
Objective 1: Review the leading health indicators outlined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Understanding the goals and purpose of the leading health indicators
2. Identifying the specific health indicators and their targets
3. Evaluating the progress towards achieving the health indicators

Heading 2: Analyzing Community Problems
Objective 2: Analyze community problems using the approaches outlined in the Work Group for Community Health and Development at the University of Kansas.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Understanding the importance of using evidence-based approaches in analyzing community problems.
2. Applying the problem-solving model to analyze community problems.
3. Identifying the root causes of community problems and developing an action plan to address them.

Heading 3: Applying Levels of Prevention
Objective 3: Apply the three levels of prevention to different scenarios.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Identifying the three levels of prevention: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary.
2. Developing an understanding of the specific interventions that fall under each level of prevention.
3. Applying the appropriate level of prevention to different scenarios.

Note: The suggested learning outcomes are not exhaustive and can be adjusted according to the depth and scope of the course or training program.

Solution 1: Implementing Preventive Measures in Community Health
One possible solution to addressing community health issues is to implement preventive measures at different levels of prevention. The following three scenarios demonstrate the application of the levels of prevention:

Scenario 1: Primary Prevention
Primary prevention measures aim to prevent the occurrence of a health issue. In this scenario, community leaders identify the high prevalence of obesity in the town and start an awareness campaign to promote healthy lifestyles. They also collaborate with the town’s schools to provide healthy food options and increase opportunities for physical activity. This strategy would address obesity and its associated health risks by preventing the onset of obesity.

Scenario 2: Secondary Prevention
Secondary prevention measures aim to detect and treat a health issue before it becomes severe. In this scenario, a community clinic offering free or low-cost health screenings to identify early signs of breast cancer. Early detection significantly improves the chances of successful treatment and survival. The community clinic can also provide referrals to nearby health facilities for further testing and treatment.

Scenario 3: Tertiary Prevention
Tertiary prevention measures aim to manage and treat a health issue that has already occurred. In this scenario, the local government increases access to mental health care to address the high rate of substance abuse and addiction. They collaborate with hospitals and clinics to provide counseling, rehabilitation programs, and support groups to help individuals in recovery sustain their sobriety.

Solution 2: Engaging Community Members in Problem-Solving
The second possible solution focuses on engaging community members in problem-solving. The following three scenarios demonstrate the application of community engagement:

Scenario 1: Collecting Data and Feedback
In this scenario, community members identify the prevalence of gang violence in their neighborhood. They collaborate with local law enforcement, schools, and social service agencies to collect data and feedback from residents to better understand the root causes of gang violence. They hold forums and town hall meetings to ensure community members’ voices are heard, and everyone’s needs are represented. This process allows for more effective problem-solving and a better understanding of the community’s needs.

Scenario 2: Building Sustainable Partnerships
In this scenario, community members identify the high incidence of mental health issues, including depression, anxiety, and suicide, among young adults. They collaborate with the school district, local faith-based institutions, and mental health professionals to establish sustainable partnerships. Together, they identify the needed resources and services to address these issues and developed a school-based mental health program for students.

Scenario 3: Developing Comprehensive Solutions
In this scenario, community members identify a lack of affordable housing leading to the high number of homeless residents. They collaborate with local housing agencies to develop comprehensive solutions. They advocate for affordable housing policies, identify funding, and create a coalition of affordable housing providers. This approach ensures that all community members have a safe, healthy, and affordable place to call home.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. Green, L. W., Ottoson, J. M., Garcia, C., & Hiatt, R. A. (2015). Diffusion theory and knowledge dissemination, utilization, and integration in public health. Annual Review of Public Health, 36, 493-505.
2. Remington, P. L., Brownson, R. C., & Wegner, M. V. (2018). Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control. American Public Health Association.
3. Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (2013). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American psychologist, 47(9), 1102-1114.

Similar Asked Questions:

1. What are the leading health indicators identified by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and why are they important?
2. How can the Community Tool Box be used to analyze community problems and develop solutions?
3. What is the difference between primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, and how are they applied in public health practice?
4. How can diffusion theory be applied to public health interventions to increase uptake and sustainability?
5. What are the best practices for conducting chronic disease epidemiology and control in a population?

Scenarios for Applying Levels of Prevention:

Primary Prevention:

Scenario 1: A local public health department wants to reduce the incidence of smoking in adolescents. They launch a media campaign targeting middle and high school students with messages about the health risks of smoking and the benefits of not smoking. They also collaborate with school administrators to implement a school-based tobacco prevention program that teaches refusal skills and offers support for quitting smoking.

Scenario 2: A community organization wants to prevent the spread of HIV among high-risk populations, such as men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, and sex workers. They offer free HIV testing and counseling services along with educational campaigns to increase knowledge about safe sex practices and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

Secondary Prevention:

Scenario 3: A hospital wants to reduce readmissions for patients with heart failure. They implement a telehealth program that monitors patients’ vital signs remotely and alerts clinicians if there are any concerning changes. The program also provides daily education and self-care supports for patients to help them manage their condition and prevent exacerbations.

Tertiary Prevention:

None Found.

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