What are the expanded or condensed structures of the reactants and products for the dehydration reaction between butanol and oleic acid?

  

Please answer and explain where appropriate. Thank you.
Learning Unit 14: Lipids Activity
5 points
1) Draw the expanded or condensed structures of the reactants and the
products for the dehydration reaction between butanol and oleic acid to form
a wax.

2) Draw the expanded or condensed structures of the reactants and the
products for the dehydration reaction between glycerol and 3 molecules of
palmitic acid to form a triglyceride.

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3) Circle the ester bonds in the wax you drew and in the triglyceride you drew.
4) Which types of lipids can be broken down by a hydrolysis reaction? List all
the types.

5) Draw the general structure of a phospholipid.

Introduction:
Lipids are diverse biomolecules that perform various functions in our body, including energy storage, insulation, and as a primary component of cell membranes. In this learning unit, we focus on lipids’ chemical structure and reactions, specifically on dehydration and hydrolysis reactions that produce or break down lipid molecules.

Description:
Activity 5 points of Learning Unit 14 explores the various reactions involved in lipid formation and breakdown through a series of questions that require students to draw and identify the structure of specific lipid molecules. The activity begins with a dehydration reaction between butanol and oleic acid, where students are required to draw the structures of reactants and products. Similarly, the activity includes a question on the dehydration reaction between glycerol and palmitic acid, where students draw the structures of reactants and triglyceride products. To assess the students’ understanding of the ester bonds, they are then asked to circle the ester linkages in both wax and triglyceride molecules. The activity then shifts to hydrolysis reactions, where students must identify all the types of lipids that undergo these reactions. Finally, the activity concludes with a question that requires students to draw the general structure of a phospholipid, which is a primary component of cell membranes. By the end of this activity, students will be able to comprehend the reactions involved in lipid formation and breakdown, which is crucial in understanding how lipids perform their functions in our body.

Headings:
1. The Dehydration Reaction
2. Esters in Lipids
3. Lipid Hydrolysis
4. Phospholipid Structure

Objectives:
– To understand the process of dehydration reactions in the formation of lipids.
– To identify different types of lipids and their chemical structures.
– To recognize the role of ester bonds in lipids.
– To understand the process of hydrolysis in the breakdown of certain types of lipids.
– To be able to draw the general structure of a phospholipid.

Learning Outcomes:
1. Students will be able to draw the expanded or condensed structures of the reactants and the products for the dehydration reaction between butanol and oleic acid to form a wax.
2. Students will be able to draw the expanded or condensed structures of the reactants and the products for the dehydration reaction between glycerol and 3 molecules of palmitic acid to form a triglyceride.
3. Students will be able to circle the ester bonds in the wax they drew and in the triglyceride they drew.
4. Students will be able to list all the types of lipids that can be broken down by a hydrolysis reaction.
5. Students will be able to draw the general structure of a phospholipid.

Explanation:
The objectives and learning outcomes were formulated based on the content of Learning Unit 14: Lipids Activity 5 points. The first objective relates to the process of dehydration reactions in the formation of lipids, which is a key aspect covered in this activity. The second and third objectives aim to help students understand the chemical structures of lipids and the role of ester bonds in them. The fourth objective helps students recognize the types of lipids that can be broken down by hydrolysis. The fifth objective focuses on a specific type of lipid – phospholipids – and requires students to be able to draw their general structure. All the learning outcomes are directly related to the five points of the activity, and if achieved, will demonstrate that students have a good understanding of lipids.

Solution 1: Dehydration Reaction between Butanol and Oleic Acid to form a Wax.

Dehydration reaction occurs when a water molecule is removed from two or more molecules. Here is how it happens between butanol and oleic acid to form a wax.

Reactants: Butanol and Oleic acid
Product: Wax

Structures:

Butanol: CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
Oleic acid: HOOC(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CH3
Wax: CH3(CH2)18COO(CH2)3CH(OH)CH2OH

The reaction is catalyzed by an acid, often sulfuric acid.

Solution 2: Dehydration Reaction between Glycerol and Palmitic Acid to form a Triglyceride.

Here is how the dehydration reaction occurs when glycerol reacts with 3 molecules of palmitic acid.

Reactants: Glycerol and Palmitic acid
Product: Triglyceride

Structures:

Glycerol: C3H8O3
Palmitic acid: CH3(CH2)14COOH
Triglyceride: CH2OCOR1-COR2OCHR3-COR4OCHR5-COR6OH

The reaction involves the removal of three water molecules and requires a catalyst like concentrated sulfuric acid, zinc chloride, or phosphoric acid.

3) In both the wax (Solution 1) and the triglyceride (Solution 2) structures, the ester bonds are circled.

4) All types of lipids, including fats, oils, waxes, and phospholipids, can be broken down by a hydrolysis reaction.

5) The general structure of a phospholipid is a hydrophilic head region made of glycerol, a phosphate group, and a charged nitrogen atom, while two hydrophobic fatty acid tails are attached to the head.

Suggested Resources/Books:
– “Lipid Biochemistry: An Introduction” by Michael I. Gurr, John L. Harwood and Keith N. Frayn
– “Biochemistry: A Short Course” by John L. Tymoczko, Jeremy M. Berg and Lubert Stryer
– “Lipid Metabolism” by Ron Moyad

Similar Questions:
1) What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated lipids?
2) How do lipids function in cell membranes?
3) What are the health benefits and risks of consuming different types of lipids?
4) How do lipids contribute to energy storage in the body?
5) What is the role of lipids in the development of cardiovascular disease?

1. Dehydration Reaction between Butanol and Oleic Acid
The dehydration reaction between butanol and oleic acid produces a wax. Draw the expanded or condensed structures of the reactants and the products.

2. Dehydration Reaction between Glycerol and Palmitic Acid
The dehydration reaction between glycerol and 3 molecules of palmitic acid produces a triglyceride. Draw the expanded or condensed structures of the reactants and the products.

3. Circle the Ester Bonds
Circle the ester bonds in the wax and the triglyceride you drew.

4. Lipids that can be Broken Down by Hydrolysis Reaction
Different types of lipids can be broken down by a hydrolysis reaction, including triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol esters.

5. General Structure of a Phospholipid
Draw the general structure of a phospholipid. A phospholipid has a hydrophilic head group (typically choline, serine, ethanolamine, or inositol) attached to a phosphate group, which is in turn bound to two hydrocarbon chains (typically fatty acids).

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