What are the elements of self-esteem, esteem needs, and belonging to a group?


Read the article, A Theory of Human Motivation. Based on the information presented in the article, discuss the elements of self-esteem, esteem needs, and belonging to a group. What is the relationship between self-esteem, esteem needs, and belonging to a group? Why is it important for a manager to understand and appreciate employees self-esteem, esteem needs, and belonging to a group? 250-300 words, article is attached.
Brooklyn College
In a previous paper (13) various propositions were presented which would have to be included in any theory of
human motivation that could lay claim to being definitive.
These conclusions may be briefly summarized as follows:
1. The integrated wholeness of the organism must be one of
the foundation stones of motivation theory.
2. The hunger drive (or any other physiological drive) was rejected as a centering point or model for a definitive theory of
motivation. Any drive that is somatically based and localizable
was shown to be atypical rather than typical in human motivation.
3. Such a theory should stress and center itself upon ultimate
or basic goals rather than partial or superficial ones, upon ends
rather than means to these ends. Such a stress would imply a
more central place for unconscious than for conscious motivations.
4. There are usually available various cultural paths to the
same goal. Therefore conscious, specific, local-cultural desires are
not as fundamental in motivation theory as the more basic, unconscious goals.
5. Any motivated behavior, either preparatory or consummatory, must be understood to be a channel through which many basic
needs may be simultaneously expressed or satisfied. Typically an
act has more than one motivation.
6. Practically all organismic states are to be understood as
motivated and as motivating.
7. Human needs arrange themselves in hierarchies of prepotency. That is to say, the appearance of one need usually rests
on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need. Man
is a perpetually wanting animal. Also no need or drive can be
treated as if it were isolated or discrete; every drive is related to the
state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of other drives.
8. Lists of drives will get us nowhere for various theoretical and
practical reasons. Furthermore any classification of motivations
must deal with the problem of levels of specificity or generalization
of the motives to be classified.
9. Classifications of motivations must be based upon goals
rather than upon instigating drives or motivated behavior.
10, Motivation theory should be human-centered rather than
n. The situation or the field in which the organism reacts
must be taken into account but the field alone can rarely serve as
an exclusive explanation for behavior. Furthermore the field itself
must be interpreted in terms of the organism. Field theory cannot
be a substitute for motivation theory.
12. Not only the integration of the organism must be taken
into account, but also the possibility of isolated, specific, partial
or segmental reactions.
It has since become necessary to add to these another affirmation,
13. Motivation theory is not synonymous with behavior theory.
The motivations are only one class of determinants of behavior.
While behavior is almost always motivated, it is also almost always
biologically, culturally and situationally determined as well.
The present paper is an attempt to formulate a positive
theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts,
clinical and observational as well as experimental. It derives
most directly, however, from clinical experience. This theory
is, I think, in the functionalist tradition of James and Dewey,
and is fused with the holism of Wertheimer (IQ), Goldstein
(6), and Gestalt Psychology, and with the dynamicism of
Freud (4) and Adler (i). This fusion or synthesis may arbitrarily be called a ‘general-dynamic’ theory.
It is far easier to perceive and to criticize the aspects in
motivation theory than to remedy them. Mostly this is because of the very serious lack of sound data in this area. I
conceive this lack of sound facts to be due primarily to the
absence of a valid theory of motivation. The present theory
then must be considered to be a suggested program or framework for future research and must stand or fall, not so much
on facts available or evidence presented, as upon researches
yet to be done, researches suggested perhaps, by the questions
raised in this paper.
The ‘physiological’ needs,The needs that are usually
taken as the starting point for motivation theory are the socalled physiological drives. Two recent lines of research
make it necessary to revise our customary notions about these
needs, first, the development of the concept of homeostasis,
and second, the finding that appetites (preferential choices
among foods) are a fairly efficient indication of actual needs
or lacks in the body.
Homeostasis refers to the body’s automatic efforts to
maintain a constant, normal state of the blood stream. Cannon (2) has described this process for (i) the water content
of the blood, (2) salt content, (3) sugar content, (4) protein
content, (5) fat content, (6) calcium content, (7) oxygen content, (8) constant hydrogen-ion level (acid-base balance) and
(9) constant temperature of the blood. Obviously this list
can be extended to include other minerals, the hormones,
vitamins, etc.
Young in a recent article (21) has summarized the work
on appetite in its relation to body needs. If the body lacks
some chemical, the individual will tend to develop a specific
appetite or partial hunger for that food element.
Thus it seems impossible as well as useless to make any
list of fundamental physiological needs for they can come to
almost any number one might wish, depending on the degree
of specificity of description. We can not identify all physiological needs as homeostatic. That sexual desire, sleepiness,
sheer activity and maternal behavior in animals, are homeostatic, has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, this
list would not include the various sensory pleasures (tastes,
smells, tickling, stroking) which are probably physiological
and which may become the goals of motivated behavior.
In a previous paper (13) it has been pointed out that
these physiological drives or needs are to be considered unusual rather than typical because they are isolable, and because they are localizable somatically. That is to say, they
are relatively independent of each other, of other motivations
and of the organism as a whole, and secondly, in many cases,
it is possible to demonstrate a localized, underlying somatic
base for the drive. This is true less generally than has been
thought (exceptions are fatigue, sleepiness, maternal responses) but it is still true in the classic instances of hunger,
sex, and thirst.
It should be pointed out again that any of the physiological needs and the consummatory behavior involved with
them serve as channels for all sorts of other needs as well.
That is to say, the person who thinks he is hungry may actually be seeking more for comfort, or dependence, than for
vitamins or proteins. Conversely, it is possible to satisfy the
hunger need in .part by other activities such as drinking water
or smoking cigarettes. In other words, relatively isolable as
these physiological needs are, they are not completely so.
Undoubtedly these physiological needs are the most prepotent of all needs. What this means specifically is, that in
the human being who is missing everything in life in an extreme fashion, it is most likely that the major motivation
would be the physiological needs rather than any others. A
person who is lacking food, safety, love, and esteem would
most probably hunger for food more strongly than for anything else.
If all the needs are unsatisfied, and the organism is then
dominated by the physiological needs, all other needs may
become simply non-existent or be pushed into the background.
It is then fair to characterize the whole organism by saying
simply that it is hungry, for consciousness is almost completely preempted by hunger. All,capacities are put into the
service of hunger-satisfaction, and the organization of these
capacities is almost entirely determined by the one purpose
of satisfying hunger. The receptors and effectors, the intelligence, memory, habits, all may now be defined simply as
hunger-gratifying tools. Capacities that are not useful for
this purpose lie dormant, or are pushed into the background.
The urge to write poetry, the desire to acquire an automobile,
the interest in American history, the desire for a new pair of
shoes are, in the extreme case, forgotten or become of sec-
ondary importance. For the man who is extremely and
dangerously hungry, no other interests exist but food. He
dreams food, he remembers food, he thinks about food, he
emotes only about food, he perceives only food and he wants
only food. The more subtle determinants that ordinarily
fuse with the physiological drives in organizing even feeding,
drinking or sexual behavior, may now be so completely overwhelmed as to allow us to speak at this time (but only at
this time) of pure hunger drive and behavior, with the one
unqualified aim of relief.
Another peculiar characteristic of the human organism
when it is dominated by a certain need is that the whole
philosophy of the future tends also to change. For our
chronically and extremely hungry man, Utopia can be defined very simply as a place where there is plenty of food.
He tends to think that, if only he is guaranteed food for the
rest of his life, he will be perfectly happy and will never want
anything more. Life itself tends to be defined in terms of
eating. Anything else will be defined as unimportant. Freedom, love, community feeling, respect, philosophy, may all
be waved aside as fripperies which are useless since they fail
to fill the stomach. Such a man may fairly be said to live
by bread alone.
It cannot possibly be denied that such things are true but
their generality can be denied. Emergency conditions are,
almost by definition, rare in the normally functioning peaceful
society. That this truism can be forgotten is due mainly to
two reasons. First, rats have few motivations other than
physiological ones, and since so much of the research upon
motivation has been made with these animals, it is easy to
carry the rat-picture over to the human being. Secondly, it
is too often not realized that culture itself is an adaptive tool,
one of whose main functions is to make the physiological
emergencies come less and less often. In most of the known
societies, chronic extreme hunger of the emergency type is
rare, rather than common. In any case, this is still true in
the United States. The average American citizen is experiencing appetite rather than hunger when he says “I am
hungry.” He is apt to experience sheer life-and-death hunger
only by accident and then only a few times through his
entire life.
Obviously a good way to obscure the ‘higher’ motivations, and to get a lopsided view of human capacities and
human nature, is to make the organism extremely and chronically hungry or thirsty. Anyone who attempts to make an
emergency picture into a typical one, and who will measure
all of man’s goals and desires by his behavior during extreme
physiological deprivation is certainly being blind to many
things. It is quite true that man lives by bread alone
when there is no bread. But what happens to man’s desires
when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically
At once other (and ‘higher’) needs emerge and these, rather
than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And
when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still ‘higher’)
needs emerge and so on. This is what we mean by saying
that the basic human needs are organized into a hierarchy of
relative prepotency.
One main implication of this phrasing is that gratification
becomes as important a concept as deprivation in motivation
theory, for it releases the organism from the domination of a
relatively more physiological need, permitting thereby the
emergence of other more social goals. The physiological
needs, along with their partial goals, when chronically gratified
cease to exist as active determinants or organizers of behavior.
They now exist only in a potential fashion in the sense that
they may emerge again to dominate the organism if they are
thwarted. But a want that is satisfied is no longer a want.
The organism is dominated and its behavior organized only
by unsatisfied needs. If hunger is satisfied, it becomes unimportant in the current dynamics of the individual.
This statement is somewhat qualified by a hypothesis to
be discussed more fully later, namely that it is precisely those
individuals in whom a certain need has always been satisfied
who are best equipped to tolerate deprivation of that need in
the future, and that furthermore, those who have been de-
prived in the past will react differently to current satisfactions
than the one who has never been deprived.
The safety needs.If the physiological needs are relatively
well gratified, there then emerges a new set of needs, which
we may categorize roughly as the safety needs. All that has
been said of the physiological needs is equally true, although
in lesser degree, of these desires. The organism may equally
well be wholly dominated by them. They may serve as the
almost exclusive organizers of behavior, recruiting all the
capacities of the organism in their service, and we may then
fairly describe the whole organism as a safety-seeking mechanism. Again we may say of the receptors, the effectors, of
the intellect and the other capacities that they are primarily
safety-seeking tools. Again, as in the hungry man, we find
that the dominating goal is a strong determinant not only of
his current world-outlook and philosophy but also of his
philosophy of the future. Practically everything looks less
important than safety, (even sometimes the physiological
needs which being satisfied, are now underestimated). A
man, in this state, if it is extreme enough and chronic enough,
may be characterized as living almost for safety alone.
Although in this paper we are interested primarily in the
needs of the adult, we can approach an understanding of his
safety needs perhaps more efficiently by observation of infants and children, in whom these needs are much more simple
and obvious. One reason for the clearer appearance of the
threat or danger reaction in infants, is that they do not
inhibit this reaction at all, whereas adults in our society have
been taught to inhibit it at all costs. Thus even when adults
do feel their safety to be threatened we may not be able to
see this on the surface. Infants will react in a total fashion
and as if they were endangered, if they are disturbed or
dropped suddenly, startled by loud noises, flashing light, or
other unusual sensory stimulation, by rough handling, by
general loss of support in the mother’s arms, or by inadequate
As the child grows up, sheer knowledge and familiarity as well as better motor
development make these ‘dangers’ less and less dangerous and more and more man-
In infants we can also see a much more direct reaction to
bodily illnesses of various kinds. Sometimes these illnesses
seem to be immediately and per se threatening and seem to
make the child feel unsafe. For instance, vomiting, colic or
other sharp pains seem to make the child look at the whole
world in a different way. At such a moment of pain, it may
be postulated that, for the child, the appearance of the whole
world suddenly changes from sunniness to darkness, so to
speak, and becomes a place in which anything at all might
happen, in which previously stable things have suddenly become unstable. Thus a child who because of some bad food
is taken ill may, for a day or two, develop fear, nightmares,
and a need for protection and reassurance never seen in him
before his illness.
Another indication of the child’s need for safety is his
preference for some kind of undisrupted routine or rhythm.
He seems to want a predictable, orderly world. For instance,
injustice, unfairness, or inconsistency in the parents seems to
make a child feel anxious and unsafe. This attitude may be
not so much because of the injustice per se or any particular
pains involved, but rather because this treatment threatens
to make the world look unreliable, or unsafe, or unpredictable.
Young children seem to thrive better under a system which
has at least a skeletal outline of rigidity, in which there is a
schedule of a kind, some sort of routine, something that can
be counted upon, not only for the present but also far into
the future. Perhaps one could express this more accurately
by saying that the child needs an organized world rather than
an unorganized or unstructured one.
The central role of the parents and the normal family
setup are indisputable. Quarreling, physical assault, separation, divorce or death within the family may be particularly
terrifying. Also parental outbursts of rage or threats of
punishment directed to the child, calling him names, speaking
to him harshly, shaking him, handling him roughly, or actual
ageable. Throughout life it may be said that one of the main conative functions of
education is .this neutralizing of apparent dangers through knowledge, e.g., I .am not
afraid of thunder because I know something about it,
physical punishment sometimes elicit such total panic and
terror in the child that we must assume more is involved than
the physical pain alone. While it is true that in some children
this terror may represent also a fear of loss of parental love,
it can also occur in completely rejected children, who seem to
cling to the hating parents more for sheer safety and protection than because of hope of love.
Confronting the average child with new, unfamiliar,
strange, unmanageable stimuli or situations will too frequently elicit the danger or terror reaction, as for example,
getting lost or even being separated from the parents for a
short time, being confronted with new faces, new situations
or new tasks, the sight of strange, unfamiliar or uncontrollable
objects, illness or death. Particularly at such times, the
child’s frantic clinging to his parents is eloquent testimony
to their role as protectors (quite apart from their roles as
food-givers and love-givers).
From these and similar observations, we may generalize
and say that the average child in our society generally prefers
a safe, orderly, predictable, organized world, which he can
count on, and in which unexpected, unmanageable or other
dangerous things do not happen, and in which, in any case,
he has all-powerful parents who protect and shield him from
That these reactions may so easily be observed in children
is in a way a proof of the fact that children in our society,
feel too unsafe (or, in a word, are badly brought up). Children who are reared in an unthreatening, loving family do
not ordinarily react as we have described above (17). In such
children the danger reactions are apt to come mostly to objects or situations that adults too would consider dangerous.2
The healthy, normal, fortunate adult in our culture is
largely satisfied in his safety needs. The peaceful, smoothly
* A ‘test battery’ for safety might be confronting the child with a small exploding
firecracker, or with a bewhiskered face, having the mother leave the room, putting him
upon a high ladder, a hypodermic injection, having a mouse crawl up to him, etc.
Of course I cannot seriously recommend the deliberate use of such ‘tests’ for they might
very well harm the child being tested. But these and similar situations come up by
the score in the child’s ordinary day-to-day living and may be observed. There is
no reason why these stimuli should not be used with, for example, young chimpanzees.
running, ‘good’ society ordinarily makes its members feel
safe enough from wild animals, extremes of temperature,
criminals, assault and murder, tyranny, etc. Therefore, in
a very real sense, he no longer has any safety needs as active
motivators. Just as a sated man no longer feels hungry, a
safe man no longer feels endangered. If we wish to see these
needs directly and clearly we must turn to neurotic or nearneurotic individuals, and to the economic and social underdogs. In between these extremes, we can perceive the expressions of safety needs only in such phenomena as, for
instance, the common preference for a job with tenure and
protection, the desire for a savings account, and for insurance
of various kinds (medical, dental, unemployment, disability,
old age).
Other broader aspects of the attempt to seek safety and
stability in the world are seen in the very common preference
for familiar rather than unfamiliar things, or for the known
rather than the unknown. The tendency to have some religion or world-philosophy that organizes the universe and the
men in it into some sort of satisfactorily coherent, meaningful
whole is also in part motivated by safety-seeking. Here too
we may list science and philosophy in general as partially
motivated by the safety needs (we shall see later that there
are also other motivations to scientific, philosophical or religious endeavor).
Otherwise the need for safety is seen as an active and
dominant mobilizer of the organism’s resources only in emergencies, e.g., war, disease, natural catastrophes, crime waves,
societal disorganization, neurosis, brain injury, chronically
bad situation.
Some neurotic adults in our society are, in many ways,
like the unsafe child in their desire for safety, although in
the former it takes on a somewhat special appearance. Their
reaction is often to unknown, psychological dangers in a
world that is perceived to be hostile, overwhelming and
threatening. Such a person behaves as if a great catastrophe
were almost always impending, i.e., he is usually responding
as if to an emergency. His safety needs often find specific
expression in a search for a protector, or a stronger person on
whom he may depend, or perhaps, a Fuehrer.
The neurotic individual may be described in a slightly
different way with some usefulness as a grown-up person who
retains his childish attitudes toward the world. That is to
say, a neurotic adult may be said to behave ‘as if he were
actually afraid of a spanking, or of his mother’s disapproval,
or of being abandoned by his parents, or having his food
taken away from him. It is as if his childish attitudes of fear
and threat reaction to a dangerous world had gone underground, and untouched by the growing up and learning processes, were now ready to be called out by any stimulus that
would make a child feel endangered and threatened.8
The neurosis in which the search for safety takes its
clearest form is in the compulsive-obsessive neurosis. Compulsive-obsessives try frantically to order and stabilize the
world so that no unmanageable, unexpected or unfamiliar
dangers will ever appear (14). They hedge themselves about
with all sorts of ceremonials, rules and formulas so that every
possible contingency may be provided for and so that no new
contingencies may appear. They are much like the brain
injured cases, described by Goldstein (6), who manage to
maintain their equilibrium by avoiding everything unfamiliar
and strange and by ordering their restricted world in such a
neat, disciplined, orderly fashion that everything in the world
can be counted upon. They try to arrange the world so that
anything unexpected (dangers) cannot possibly occur. If,
through no fault of their own, something unexpected does
occur, they go into a panic reaction as if this unexpected
occurrence constituted a grave danger. What we can see
only as a none-too-strong preference in the healthy person,
e.g., preference for the familiar, becomes a life-and-death
necessity in abnormal cases.
The love needs.If both the physiological and the safety
needs are fairly well gratified, then there will emerge the love
and affection and belongingness needs, and the whole cycle
Not all neurotic individuals feel unsafe. Neurosis may have at its core a thwarting of the affection and esteem needs in a person who is generally safe.
already described will repeat itself with this new center.
Now the person will feel keenly, as never before, the absence
of friends, or a sweetheart, or a wife, or children. He will
hunger for affectionate relations with people in general,
namely, for a place in his group, and he will strive with great
intensity to achieve this goal. He will want to attain such
a place more than anything else in the world and may even
forget that once, when he was hungry, he sneered at love.
In our society the thwarting of these needs is the most
commonly found core in cases of maladjustment and more
severe psychopathology. Love and affection, as well as their
possible expression in sexuality, are generally looked upon
with ambivalence and are customarily hedged about with
many restrictions and inhibitions. Practically all theorists
of psychopathology have stressed thwarting of the love needs
as basic in the picture of maladjustment. Many clinical
studies have therefore been made of this need and we know
more about it perhaps than any of the other needs except
the physiological ones (14).
One thing that must be stressed at this point is that love
is not synonymous with sex. Sex may be studied as a purely
physiological need. Ordinarily sexual behavior is multi-determined, that is to say, determined not only by sexual but
also by other needs, chief among which are the love and
affection needs. Also not to be overlooked is the fact that
the love needs involve both giving and receiving love.4
The esteem needs.All people in our society (with a few
pathological exceptions) have a need or desire for a stable,
firmly based, (usually) high evaluation of themselves, for
self-respect, or self-esteem, and for the esteem of others. By
firmly based self-esteem, we mean that which is soundly
based upon real capacity, achievement and respect from
others. These needs may be classified into two subsidiary
sets. These are, first, the desire for strength, for achievement, for adequacy, for confidence in the face of the world,
and for independence and freedom.5 Secondly, we have what
For further details see (is) and (*6, Chap. 5).
Whether or not this particular desire is universal we do not know. The crucial
question, especially important today, is “Will men who are enslaved and dominated,
we may call the desire for reputation or prestige (defining it
as respect or esteem from other people), recognition, attention, importance or appreciation.8 These needs have been
relatively stressed by Alfred Adler and his followers, and have
been relatively neglected by Freud and the psychoanalysts.
More and more today however there is appearing widespread
appreciation of their central importance.
Satisfaction of the self-esteem need leads to feelings of
self-confidence, worth, strength, capability and adequacy of
being useful and necessary in the world. But thwarting of
these needs produces feelings of inferiority, of weakness and
of helplessness. These feelings in turn give rise to either
basic discouragement or else compensatory or neurotic trends.
An appreciation of the necessity of basic self-confidence and
an understanding of how helpless people are without it, can
be easily gained from a study of severe traumatic neurosis (8).7
The need for self-actualization.Even if all these needs are
satisfied, we may still often (if not always) expect that a new
discontent and restlessness will soon develop, unless the individual is doing what he is fitted for. A musician must
make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is
to be ultimately happy. What a man can be, he must be.
This need we may call self-actualization.
This term, first coined by Kurt Goldstein, is being used
in this paper in a much more specific and limited fashion.
It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the
tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to
become more and more what one is, to become everything
that one is capable of becoming.
inevitably feel dissatisfied and rebellious?” We may assume on the basis of commonly known clinical data that a man who has known true freedom (not paid for by
giving up safety and security but rather built on the basis of adequate safety and
security) will not willingly or easily allow his freedom to be taken away from him.
But we do not know that this is true for the person born into slavery. The events of
the next decade should give us our answer. See discussion of this problem in (s).
Perhaps the desire for prestige and respect from others is subsidiary to the desire
for self-esteem or confidence in oneself. Observation of children seems to indicate
that this is so, but clinical data give no clear support for such a conclusion.
k ‘For more extensive discussion of normal self-esteem, as well as for reports of
various researches, see (n).
The specific form that these needs will take will of course
vary greatly from person to person. In one individual it
may take the form of the desire to be an ideal mother, in
another it may be expressed athletically, and in still another
it may be expressed in painting pictures or in inventions. It
is not necessarily a creative urge although in people who have
any capacities for creation it will take this form.
The clear emergence of these needs rests upon prior satisfaction of the physiological, safety, love and esteem needs.
We shall call people who are satisfied in these needs, basically
satisfied people, and it is from these that we may expect the
fullest (and healthiest) creativeness.8 Since, in our society,
basically satisfied people are the exception, we do not know
much about self-actualization, either experimentally or clinically. It remains a challenging problem for research.
The preconditions for the basic need satisfactions.There
are certain conditions which are immediate prerequisites for
the basic need satisfactions. Danger to these is reacted to
almost as if it were a direct danger to the basic needs themselves. Such conditions as freedom to speak, freedom to do
what one wishes so long as no harm is done to others, freedom
to express one’s self, freedom to investigate and seek for information, freedom to defend one’s self, justice, fairness,
honesty, orderliness in the group are examples of such preconditions for basic need satisfactions. Thwarting in these
freedoms will be reacted to with a threat or emergency response. These conditions are not ends in themselves but
they are almost so since they are so closely related to the basic
needs, which are apparently the only ends in themselves.
These conditions are defended because without them the
basic satisfactions are quite impossible, or at least, very
severely endangered.
Clearly creative behavior, like painting, is like any other behavior in having
multiple determinants. It may be seen in ‘innately creative’ people whether they
are satisfied or not, happy or unhappy, hungry or sated. Also it is clear that creative
activity may be compensatory, ameliorative or purely economic. It is my impression
(as yet unconfirmed) that it is possible to distinguish the artistic and intellectual products of basically satisfied people from those of basically unsatisfied people by inspection alone. In any case, here too we must distinguish, in a dynamic fashion, the overt
behavior itself from its various motivations or purposes.
If we remember that the cognitive capacities (perceptual,
intellectual, learning) are a set of adjustive tools, which have,
among other functions, that of satisfaction of our basic needs,
then it is clear that any danger to them, any deprivation or
blocking of their free use, must also be indirectly threatening
to the basic needs themselves. Such a statement is a partial
solution of the general problems of curiosity, the search for
knowledge, truth and wisdom, and the ever-persistent urge to
solve the cosmic mysteries.
We must therefore introduce another hypothesis and speak
of degrees of closeness to the basic needs, for we have already
pointed out that any conscious desires (partial goals) are more
or less important as they are more or less close to the basic
needs. The same statement may be made for various behavior acts. An act is psychologically important if it contributes directly to satisfaction of basic needs. The less
directly it so contributes, or the weaker this contribution is,
the less important this act must be conceived to be from the
point of view of dynamic psychology. A similar statement
may be made for the various defense or coping mechanisms.
Some are very directly related to the protection or attainment of the basic needs, others are only weakly and distantly
related. Indeed if we wished, we could speak of more basic
and less basic defense mechanisms, and then affirm that
danger to, the more basic defenses is more threatening than
danger to less basic defenses (always remembering that this is
so only because of their relationship to the basic needs).
The desires to know and to understand.So far, we have
mentioned the cognitive needs only in passing. Acquiring
knowledge and systematizing the universe have been considered as, in part, techniques for the achievement of basic
safety in the world, or, for the intelligent man, expressions
of self-actualization. Also freedom of inquiry and expression
have been discussed as preconditions of satisfactions of the
basic needs. True though these formulations may be, they
do not constitute definitive answers to the question as to the
motivation role of curiosity, learning, philosophizing, experimenting, etc. They are, at best, no more than partial answers.
This question is especially difficult because we know so
little about the facts. Curiosity, exploration, desire for the
facts, desire to know may certainly be observed easily enough.
The fact that they often are pursued even at great cost to the
individual’s safety is an earnest of the partial character of
our previous discussion. In addition, the writer must admit
that, though he has sufficient clinical evidence to postulate
the desire to know as a very strong drive in intelligent people,
no data are available for unintelligent people. It may then
be largely a function of relatively high intelligence. Rather
tentatively, then, and largely in the hope of stimulating discussion and research, we shall postulate a basic desire to
know, to be aware of reality, to get the facts, to satisfy curiosity, or as Wertheimer phrases it, to see rather than to be
This postulation, however, is not enough. Even after we
know, we are impelled to know more and more minutely and
microscopically on the one hand, and on the other, more and
more extensively in the direction of a world philosophy, religion, etc. The facts that we acquire, if they are isolated or
atomistic, inevitably get theorized about, and either analyzed
or organized or both. This process has been phrased by some
as the search for ‘meaning.’ We shall then postulate a desire
to understand, to systematize, to organize, to analyze, to look
for relations and meanings.
Once these desires are accepted for discussion, we see that
they too form themselves into a small hierarchy in which
the desire to know is prepotent over the desire to understand.
All the characteristics of a hierarchy of prepotency that we
have described above, seem to hold for this one as well.
We must guard ourselves against the too easy tendency to
separate these desires from the basic needs we .have discussed
above, i.e., to make a sharp dichotomy between ‘cognitive’
and ‘conative’ needs. The desire to know and to understand are themselves conative, i.e., have a striving character,
and are as much personality needs as the ‘basic needs’ we
have already discussed (19).
The degree of fixity of the hierarchy of basic needs.We have
spoken so far as if this hierarchy were a fixed order but actually it is not nearly as rigid as we may have implied. It
is true that most of the people with whom we have worked
have seemed to have these basic needs in about the order
that has been indicated. However, there have been a number
of exceptions.
(1) There are some people in whom, for instance, selfesteem seems to be more important than love. This most
common reversal in the hierarchy is usually due to the development of the notion that the person who is most likely
to be loved is a strong or powerful person, one who inspires
respect or fear, and who is self confident or aggressive. Therefore such people who lack love and seek it, may try hard to
put on a front of aggressive, confident behavior. But essentially they seek high self-esteem and its behavior expressions
more as a means-to-an-end than for its own sake; they seek
self-assertion for the sake of love rather than for self-esteem
(2) There are other, apparently innately creative people
in whom the drive to creativeness seems to be more important than any other counter-determinant. Their creativeness
might appear not as self-actualization released by basic satisfaction, but in spite of lack of basic satisfaction.
(3) In certain people the level of aspiration may be permanently deadened or lowered. That is to say, the less prepotent goals may simply be lost, and may disappear forever,
so that the person who has experienced life at a very low level,
i.e., chronic unemployment, may continue to be satisfied for
the rest of his life if only he can get enough food.
(4) The so-called ‘psychopathic personality’ is another
example of permanent loss of the love needs. These are
people who, according to the best data available (9), have
been starved for love in the earliest months of their lives and
have simply lost forever the desire and the ability to give
and to receive affection (as animals lose sucking or pecking
reflexes that are not exercised soon enough after birth).
” (5) Another cause of reversal of the hierarchy is that
when a need has been satisfied for a long time, this need may
be underevaluated. People who have never experienced
chronic hunger are apt to underestimate its effects and to
look upon food as a rather unimportant thing. If they are
dominated by a higher need, this higher need will seem to
be the most important of all. It then becomes possible, and
indeed does actually happen, that they may, for the sake of
this higher need, put themselves into the position of being
deprived in a more basic need. We may expect that after a
long-time deprivation of the more basic need there will be a
tendency to reevaluate both needs so that the more prepotent need will actually become consciously prepotent for
the individual who may have given it up very lightly. Thus,
a man who has given up his job rather than lose his selfrespect, and who then starves for six months or so, may be
willing to take his job back even at the price of losing his
(6) Another partial explanation of apparent reversals is
seen in the fact that we have been talking about the hierarchy
of prepotency in terms of consciously felt wants or desires
rather than of behavior. Looking at behavior itself may give
us the wrong impression. What we have claimed is that the
person will want the more basic of two needs when deprived
in both. There is no necessary implication here that he will
act upon his desires. Let us say again:that there are many
determinants of behavior other than the needs and desires.
(7) Perhaps more important than all these exceptions are
the ones that involve ideals, high social standards, high values
and the like. With such values people become martyrs; they
will give up everything for the sake of a particular ideal, or
value. These people may be understood, at least in part, by
reference to one basic concept (or hypothesis) which may be
called ‘ increased frustration-tolerance through early gratification.’ People who have been satisfied in their basic needs
throughout their lives, particularly in their earlier years, seem
to develop exceptional power to withstand present or future
thwarting of these needs simply because they have strong,
healthy character structure as a result of basic satisfaction.
They are the ‘strong’ people who can easily weather disagreement or opposition, who can swim against the stream
of public opinion and who can stand up for the truth at
great personal cost. It is just the ones who have loved and
been well loved, and who have had many deep friendships
who can hold out against hatred, rejection or persecution.
I say all this in spite of the fact that there is a certain
amount of sheer habituation which is also involved in any
full discussion of frustration tolerance. For instance, it is
likely that those persons who have been accustomed to relative starvation for a long time, are partially enabled thereby
to withstand food deprivation. What sort of balance must
be made between these two tendencies, of habituation on the
one hand, and of past satisfaction breeding present frustration
tolerance on the other hand, remains to be worked out by
further research. Meanwhile we may assume that they are
both operative, side by side, since they do not contradict
each other. In respect to this phenomenon of increased
frustration tolerance, it seems probable that the most important gratifications come in the first two years of life. That
is to say, people who have been made secure and strong in
the earliest years, tend to remain secure and strong thereafter
in the face of whatever threatens.
Degrees of relative satisfaction.So far, our theoretical discussion may have given the impression that these five sets of
needs are somehow in a step-wise, all-or-none relationships to
each other. We have spoken in such terms as the following:
“If one need is satisfied, then another emerges.” This statement might give the false impression that a need must be
satisfied 100 per cent before the next need emerges. In actual fact, most members of our society who are normal, are
partially satisfied in all their basic needs and partially unsatisfied in all their basic needs at the same time. A more
realistic description of the hierarchy would be in terms of
decreasing percentages of satisfaction as we go up the hierarchy of prepotency. For instance, if I may assign arbitrary
figures for the sake of illustration, it is as if the average citizen
is satisfied perhaps 85 per cent in his physiological needs, 70
per cent in his safety needs, 50 per cent in his love needs, 40
per cent in his self-esteem needs, and 10 per cent in his selfactualization needs.
As for the concept of emergence of a new need after satisfaction of the prepotent need, this emergence is not a sudden,
saltatory phenomenon but rather a gradual emergence by
slow degrees from nothingness. For instance, if prepotent
need A is satisfied only 10 per cent then need B may not be
visible at all. However, as this need A becomes satisfied 25
per cent, need B may emerge 5 per cent, as need A becomes
satisfied 75 per cent need B may emerge 90 per cent, and so on.
Unconscious character of needs.These needs are neither
necessarily conscious nor unconscious. On the whole, however, in the average person, they are more often unconscious
rather than conscious. It is not necessary at this point to
overhaul the tremendous mass of evidence which indicates
the crucial importance of unconscious motivation. It would
by now be expected, on a priori grounds alone, that unconscious motivations would on the whole be rather more important than the conscious motivations. What we have called
the basic needs are very often largely unconscious although
they may, with suitable techniques, and with sophisticated
people become conscious.
Cultural specificity and generality of needs.This classification of basic needs makes some attempt to take account of
the relative unity behind the superficial differences in specific
desires from one culture to another. Certainly in any particular culture an individual’s conscious motivational content
will usually be extremely different from the conscious motivational content of an individual in another society. However,
it is the common experience of anthropologists that people,
even in different societies, are much more alike than we would
think from our first contact with them, and that as we know
them better we seem to find more and more of this commonness. We then recognize the most startling differences to be
superficial rather than basic, e.g., differences in style of hairdress, clothes, tastes in food, etc. Our classification of basic
needs is in part an attempt to account for this unity behind
the apparent diversity from culture to culture. No claim is
made that it is ultimate or universal for all cultures. The
claim is made only that it is relatively more ultimate, more
universal, more basic, than the superficial conscious desires
from culture to culture, and makes a somewhat closer approach to common-human characteristics. Basic needs are
more common-human than superficial desires or behaviors.
Multiple motivations of behavior.These needs must be
understood not to be exclusive or single determiners of certain
kinds of behavior. An example may be found in any behavior that seems to be physiologically motivated, such as
eating, or sexual play or the like. The clinical psychologists
have long since found that any behavior may be a channel
through which flow various determinants. Or to say it in
another way, most behavior is multi-motivated. Within the
sphere of motivational determinants any behavior tends to
be determined by several or all of the basic needs simultaneously rather than by only one of them. The latter would be
more an exception than the former. Eating may be partially
for the sake of filling the stomach, and partially for the sake
of comfort and amelioration of other needs. One may make
love not only for pure sexual release, but also to convince
one’s self of one’s masculinity, or to make a conquest, to feel
powerful, or to win more basic affection. As an illustration,
I may point out that it would be possible (theoretically if not
practically) to analyze a single act of an individual and see
in it the expression of his physiological needs, his safety needs,
his love needs, his esteem needs and self-actualization. This
contrasts sharply with the more naive brand of trait psychology in which one trait or one motive accounts for a certain
kind of act, i.e., an aggressive act is traced solely to a trait
of aggressiveness.
Multiple determinants of behavior.Not all behavior is determined by the basic needs. We might even say that not
all behavior is motivated. There are many determinants of
behavior other than motives.9 For instance, one other im1 am aware that many psychologists and psychoanalysts use the term ‘motivated’ and ‘determined’ synonymously, e.g., Freud. But I consider this an ob-
portant class of determinants is the so-called ‘field* determinants. Theoretically, at least, behavior may be determined completely by the field, or even by specific isolated
external stimuli, as in association of ideas, or certain conditioned reflexes. If in response to the stimulus word ‘table,’
I immediately perceive a memory image of a table, this response certainly has nothing to do with my basic needs.
Secondly, we may call attention again to the concept of
‘degree of closeness to the basic needs’ or ‘degree of motivation.’ Some behavior is highly motivated, other behavior is
only weakly motivated. Some is not motivated at all (but
all behavior is determined).
Another important point10 is that there is a basic difference between expressive behavior and coping behavior (functional striving, purposive goal seeking). An expressive behavior does not try to do anything; it is simply a reflection
of the personality. A stupid man behaves stupidly, not because he wants to, or tries to, or is motivated to, but simply
because he is what he is. The same is true when I speak in a
bass voice rather than tenor or soprano. The random movements of a healthy child, the smile on the face of a happy
man even when he is alone, the springiness of the healthy
man’s walk, and the erectness of his carriage are other examples of expressive, non-functional behavior. Also the style
in which a man carries out almost all his behavior, motivated
as well as unmotivated, is often expressive.
We may then ask, is all behavior expressive or reflective
of the character structure? The answer is ‘No.’ Rote,
habitual, automatized, or conventional behavior, may or may
not be expressive. The same is true for most ‘stimulusbound’ behaviors.
It is finally necessary to stress that expressiveness of behavior, and goal-directedness of behavior are not mutually
exclusive categories. Average behavior is usually both.
Goals as centering principle in motivation theory.It will
be observed that the basic principle in our classification has
fuscating usage. Sharp distinctions are necessary for clarity of thought, and precision
in experimentation.
To be discussed fully in a subsequent publication.
been neither the instigation nor the motivated behavior but
rather the functions, effects, purposes, or goals of the behavior.
It has been proven sufficiently by various people that this is
the most suitable point for centering in any motivation
Animal- and human-centering.This theory starts with
the human being rather than any lower and presumably
‘simpler’ animal. Too many of the findings that have been
made in animals have been proven to be true for animals
but not for the human being. There is no reason whatsoever
why we should start with animals in order to study human
motivation. The logic or rather illogic behind this general
fallacy of ‘pseudo-simplicity’ has been exposed often enough
by philosophers and logicians as well as by scientists in each
of the various fields. It is no more necessary to study animals before one can study man than it is to study mathematics before one can study geology or psychology or biology.
We may also reject the old, naive, behaviorism which
assumed that it was somehow necessary, or at least more
‘scientific’ to judge human beings by animal standards. One
consequence of this belief was that the whole notion of purpose and goal was excluded from motivational psychology
simply because one could not ask a white rat about his
purposes. Tolman (18) has long since proven in animal
studies themselves that this exclusion was not necessary.
Motivation and the theory of psychopathogenesis.The conscious motivational content of everyday life has, according
to the foregoing, been conceived to be relatively important
or unimportant accordingly as it is more or less closely related to the basic goals. A desire for an ice cream cone might
actually be an indirect expression of a desire for love. If it
is, then this desire for the ice cream cone becomes extremely
important motivation. If however the ice cream is simply
something to cool the mouth with, or a casual appetitive
reaction, then the desire is relatively unimportant. Everyday conscious desires are to be regarded as symptoms, as
The interested reader is referred to the very excellent discussion of this point
in Murray’s Explorations in Personality (is).
surface indicators of more basic needs. If we were ,to take
these superficial desires at their face value we would find ourselves in a state of complete confusion which could never be
resolved, since we would be dealing seriously with symptoms
rather than with what lay behind the symptoms.
Thwarting of unimportant desires produces no psychopathological results; thwarting of a basically important need
does produce such results. Any theory of psychopathogenesis
must then be based on a sound theory of motivation. A conflict or a frustration is not necessarily pathogenic. It becomes so only when it threatens or thwarts the basic needs,
or partial needs that are closely related to the basic needs (10).
The role of gratified needs.It has been pointed out above
several times that our needs usually emerge only when more
prepotent needs have been gratified. Thus gratification has
an important role in motivation theory. Apart from this,
however, needs cease to play an active determining or organizing.role as soon as they are gratified.
What this means is that, e.g., a basically satisfied person
no longer has the needs for esteem, love, safety, etc. The
only sense in which he might be said to have them is in the
almost metaphysical sense that a sated man has hunger, or a
filled bottle has emptiness. If we are interested in what
actually motivates us, and not in what has, will, or might
motivate us, then a satisfied need is not a motivator. It
must be considered for all practical purposes simply not to
exist, to have disappeared. This point should be emphasized
because it has been either overlooked or contradicted in every
theory of motivation I know.12 The perfectly healthy, normal, fortunate man has no sex needs or hunger needs, or
needs for safety, or for love, or for prestige, or self-esteem,
except in stray moments of quickly passing threat. If we
were to say otherwise, we should also have to aver that every
man had all the pathological reflexes, e.g., Babinski, etc., because if his nervous system were damaged, these would appear.
It is such considerations as these that suggest the bold
Note that acceptance of this theory necessitates basic revision of the Freudian
postulation that a man who is thwarted in any of his basic
needs may fairly be envisaged simply as a sick man. This is
a fair parallel to our designation as ‘sick’ of the man who
lacks vitamins or minerals. Who is to say that a lack of love
is less important than a lack of vitamins? Since we know
the pathogenic effects of love starvation, who is to say that
we are invoking value-questions in an unscientific or illegitimate way, any more than the physician does who diagnoses
and treats pellagra or scurvy? If I were permitted this
usage, I should then say simply that a healthy man is primarily motivated by his needs to develop and actualize his
fullest potentialities and capacities. If a man has any other
basic needs in any active, chronic sense, then he is simply
an unhealthy man. He is as surely sick as if he had suddenly
developed a strong salt-hunger or calcium hunger.13
If this statement seems unusual or paradoxical the reader
may be assured that this is only one among many such paradoxes that will appear as we revise our ways of looking at
man’s deeper motivations. When we ask what man wants of
life, we deal with his very essence.
(1) There are at least five sets of goals, which we may call
basic needs. These are briefly physiological, safety, love,
esteem, and self-actualization. In addition, we are motivated by the desire to achieve or maintain the various
conditions upon which these basic satisfactions rest and
by certain more intellectual desires.
(2) These basic goals are related to each other, being arranged
in a hierarchy of prepotency. This means that the most
prepotent goal will monopolize consciousness and will tend
of itself to organize the recruitment of the various capacities of the organism. The less prepotent needs are
” If we were to use the word ‘sick’ in this way, we should then also have to face
squarely the relations of man to his society. One clear implication of our definition
would be that (i) since a man is to be called sick who is basically thwarted, and (2)
since such basic thwarting is made possible ultimately only by forces outside the individual, then (3) sickness in the individual must come ultimately from a sickness in
the society. The ‘good* or healthy society would then be defined as one that permitted man’s highest purposes to emerge by satisfying all his prepotent basic needs.
minimized, even forgotten or denied. But when a need
is fairly well satisfied, the next prepotent (‘higher’) need
emerges, in turn to dominate the conscious life and to
serve as the center of organization of behavior, since
gratified needs are not active motivators.
Thus man is a perpetually wanting animal. Ordinarily
the satisfaction of these wants is not altogether mutually
exclusive, but only tends to be. The average member of
our society is most often partially satisfied and partially
unsatisfied in all of his wants. The hierarchy principle is
usually empirically observed in terms of increasing percentages of non-satisfaction as we go up the hierarchy.
Reversals of the average order of the hierarchy are sometimes observed. Also it has been observed that an individual may permanently lose the higher wants in the
hierarchy under special conditions. There are not only
ordinarily multiple motivations for usual behavior, but in
addition many determinants other than motives.
(3) Any thwarting or possibility of thwarting of these basic
human goals, or danger to the defenses which protect
them, or to the conditions upon which they rest, is considered to be a psychological threat. With a few exceptions, all psychopathology may be partially traced to
such threats. A basically thwarted man may actually be
defined as a ‘sick’ man, if we wish.
(4) It is such basic threats which bring about the general
emergency reactions.
(5) Certain other basic problems have not been dealt with
because of limitations of space. Among these are (a) the
problem of values in any definitive motivation theory,
(b) the relation between appetites, desires, needs and what
is ‘good’ for the organism, (c) the etiology of the basic
needs and their possible derivation in early childhood, (d)
redefinition of motivational concepts, i.e., drive, desire,
wish, need, goal, (

I. Introduction

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In his paper, A Theory of Human Motivation, A. H. Maslow presents a comprehensive and definitive theory of human motivation. This theory proposes that basic, unconscious goals are the center of human motivation, rather than somatically based drives. Maslow also introduces the concept of a hierarchy of prepotency for human needs, where the satisfaction of one need depends on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need.

II. Description

Maslow’s theory of human motivation highlights the importance of self-esteem, esteem needs, and belonging to a group. According to Maslow, self-esteem needs are fundamental in human motivation as they are necessary for a person to feel good about themselves and their abilities. These needs can be satisfied through recognition, respect, and acceptance from others, as well as through personal accomplishments. Belonging to a group is also crucial for human motivation, as it promotes feelings of connection and socialization.

Furthermore, Maslow identifies the concept of hierarchy of needs, where the satisfaction of one need depends on the fulfillment of other basic needs. For instance, a person cannot fully satisfy their esteem needs until their physiological and safety needs have been met.

Thus, it is important for managers to understand and appreciate their employees’ self-esteem needs and the need for belonging to a group. This understanding can lead to a more productive and positive work environment, where employees feel valued and recognized. When their self-esteem needs are met, they are more likely to attain their full potential, resulting in better job performance and increased job satisfaction.

In conclusion, Maslow’s theory of human motivation demonstrates that understanding the elements of self-esteem, esteem needs and belonging to a group is fundamental in human motivation. Employers can apply this theory in motivating their employees, ultimately leading to a better work environment and job performance.

To understand and appreciate the relationship between self-esteem, esteem needs, and belonging to a group.

Learning Outcomes:
By the end of this article, the reader will be able to:
– Explain the role of self-esteem in human motivation
– Define esteem needs and their connection to self-esteem
– Describe the importance of belonging to a group in meeting esteem needs
– Analyze the relationship between self-esteem, esteem needs, and belonging to a group
– Evaluate the significance of understanding and appreciating employees’ self-esteem, esteem needs, and belonging to a group for managers.

Self-Esteem, Esteem Needs, and Belonging to a Group
Self-esteem is an essential part of human motivation. It refers to the need for individuals to feel good about themselves, their abilities, and achievements. Esteem needs, as described by Maslow, are the next level of needs following physiological and safety needs. These needs are related to self-esteem, including the desire for recognition, respect, and confidence.

Belonging to a group is also a crucial part of meeting esteem needs. People not only need to feel valued as individuals but also desire recognition from others within a group. Being part of a group can provide individuals with a sense of identity and can lead to fulfilling social relationships. The group can also be a source of validation or recognition, which can contribute to an individual’s self-esteem.

The relationship between self-esteem, esteem needs, and belonging to a group is interconnected. A positive sense of self-esteem can lead to a greater likelihood of seeking out positive relationships with others. At the same time, being part of a group can reinforce and strengthen an individual’s self-esteem.

Managers must understand and appreciate their employees’ self-esteem, esteem needs, and their sense of belonging to a group. When employees’ esteem needs are not met, they may become demotivated in their work. Disregarding employees’ need for positive social relationships may result in feelings of isolation and lack of support, potentially leading to a lack of job satisfaction or even resignation. Therefore, it is crucial for managers to create a positive workplace environment that fosters healthy social relationships and supports individual self-esteem.

Solution 1: Understanding the Relationship between Self-Esteem, Esteem Needs, and Belonging to a Group

The article by A. H. Maslow titled “A Theory of Human Motivation” sheds light on various aspects of human motivation, with a focus on understanding the hierarchy of human needs. The article highlights the role of self-esteem, esteem needs, and the desire to belong to a group in human motivation. Self-esteem refers to an individual’s subjective evaluation of their worth and competence. Esteem needs, on the other hand, refers to the desire for a sense of achievement, respect, and recognition from others.

The desire for belonging to a group is an essential aspect of human motivation and is closely related to self-esteem and esteem needs. People often seek the approval of others and desire to belong to a group that shares their values and beliefs. Being part of a group provides a sense of identity and a feeling of being accepted, which contributes positively to an individual’s self-esteem and self-worth.

For managers, it is crucial to understand and appreciate their employees’ self-esteem, esteem needs, and the desire to belong to a group. When employees feel valued, respected, and accepted for who they are, they are likely to be more motivated and productive. A manager who fosters a sense of belonging and encourages teamwork can help employees feel more connected to their work, the organization, and their colleagues. This, in turn, can lead to increased employee engagement, job satisfaction, and overall well-being.

Solution 2: Implementing Strategies to Enhance Self-Esteem, Esteem Needs, and Group Belongingness

Based on Maslow’s theory of human motivation, there are several strategies that managers can implement to enhance their employees’ self-esteem, esteem needs, and sense of belongingness to a group. Firstly, managers can provide their employees with opportunities for professional development, training, and career progression. This can help to satisfy their esteem needs by providing them with a sense of accomplishment and recognition.

Secondly, it is critical to provide employees with feedback and recognition for their contributions and achievements. Recognizing their hard work and efforts can contribute positively to their self-esteem and overall motivation.

Thirdly, managers can encourage teamwork and collaboration among employees to foster a sense of belongingness to a group. This can be achieved through team-building activities and creating a supportive work culture.

Finally, creating a supportive work culture that values diversity and promotes inclusion can help employees feel accepted and valued for who they are. Providing employees with opportunities to express themselves and their individuality can contribute positively to their self-esteem and overall motivation.

In conclusion, understanding and appreciating employees’ self-esteem, esteem needs, and desire to belong to a group is crucial for managers. Implementing strategies that enhance these aspects can contribute positively to employee motivation, engagement, and overall well-being.

Suggested Resources/Books:
1. “Motivation and Personality” by Abraham Maslow – This book is authored by the same psychologist who wrote the article and further explores the concept of self-esteem and human motivation.
2. “Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us” by Daniel H. Pink – This book delves into the different sources of motivation, including the importance of self-esteem and belonging to a group.
3. “The Power of Positive Thinking” by Norman Vincent Peale – This self-help book emphasizes the importance of maintaining a positive self-image and developing self-confidence.

Similar Asked Questions:
1. How do self-esteem and esteem needs affect an individual’s motivation?
2. Can belonging to a group positively influence an individual’s self-esteem and motivation?
3. What are some strategies for a manager to meet the self-esteem and esteem needs of their employees?
4. How can a lack of belongingness or social connection impact an individual’s overall well-being?
5. In what ways do cultural differences influence an individual’s self-esteem and sense of belonging to a group?

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