What are functional and non-functional system requirements and how do they differ?

  

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Need to wright below question with this reference chapter 4 http://iansommerville.com/software-engineeringbook/slides/
1.
Compare and contrast functional versus non-functional system requirements, and provide an example of each.
Need 2-3 pages for below question need to use attached pdf.
Complete these items for the exercise.
Using the Wilderness Weather Station case study for reference, document a detailed list of five or more user
requirements. Prioritize this list.
Still using the Wilderness Weather Station case study for reference, document a detailed list of five or more system
requirements. These system requirements should contain a mix of functional and non-functional requirements, and
should also be prioritized.
Review the list of system requirements, and introduce at least one functional and one non-functional requirement
change. Document these changes and the impact those changes might have on the development process.
Each assignment should include a prioritized list of both user and system requirements. The changes to the software
system requirements (both functional and non-functional) must also be listed, along with observations regarding the
impact those changes might have on the development process.
Over
the course of this class we will be
performing several exercises involving the
Wilderness Weather Station Case Study and
its components.
It is therefore important to explicitly define
those components and their characteristics
for our analysis
A government (Canada) will deploy these
Wilderness Weather Stations across a wide area
in remote areas.
The overall software that defines this system is
composed of three major and distinct parts.
There are three major sections to this system:
Satellite Box
Control Panel
Database Application
Note that these sections may be designed,
developed, and configured independently.
The
first component is the Satellite Box.
This is the component that is deployed in the
field in a large weather resistant container.
This system will have a variety of weather
sensors, including temperature, wind speed
and direction, barometric pressure, humidity,
and rain fall, among possible others.
This
will communicate with the Control
Panel application by way of a Satellite
communication link with a Geosynchronous
communication satellite.
Assume that communication through the
satellite link is billed per MB of data, and is
EXPENSIVE. Keep communications as simple
as possible.
The
box will contain a battery and a
computer system running the software we
design for this system.
There are two types of this box. The first
uses solar panels to recharge the battery.
The second uses a wind turbine. The wind
turbine is better for the northern areas of
the terrain as well as places with lower
levels of sunlight (valleys and north side of
mountains).
Overly
strong winds can damage the wind
turbines if they are not put into a safe
mode. The Control Panel will be
responsible for monitoring forecasts and
communicating to the Satellite Boxes that
need it to go into safe mode.
The
satellite boxes should normally
communicate with the Control Panel
application every 6 hours and relay weather
information as well as system status
information (battery level and any issues
with the sensors).
If the satellite box cant reach the control
panel it will save its weather data for the
next time it can do so.
In
the central headquarters, there will be
one control panel (optionally, a primary and
a backup) that will receive information from
the Satellite Boxes and send commands to
them.
This will have a Graphical User Interface
(GUI) for use by the Park Ranger who will
manage it.
NOTE: The Park Ranger who manages this
application will likely have other duties so
this must be easy to use and low
maintenance.
Among
other features, this application will
display a map of the area with dots for all of
the satellite boxes.
This application will attempt to parse
weather forecasts for the area and place
wind turbine boxes in safe mode
automatically.
The operator can override the safe mode
feature (either putting some or all boxes into
safe mode or taking them out).
The
operator may receive text messages for
important system events.
NOTE: There will be several hundred
satellite boxes. The loss of one box is an
inconvenience, not a disaster.
The Control Panel will receive weather data
and status information and store this in the
database application (see below)
The
control panel will feed the weather data
into a database.
This database will then expose the data
through web services to various interested
customers (national weather services and
universities possibly including private
citizens).
The application may have a GUI, but most of
the code will be related to the web services.
Remember
that this description is only a
starting point. If a specific assignment (in
your opinion) requires you to make up other
specific details about this system then just
make them up but state what it is you have
made up.

Introduction:

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Software engineering aims at developing software that is reliable, efficient, and meets the user’s needs. This requires a clear and comprehensive understanding of the system’s requirements. Requirements engineering seeks to identify and specify the user’s needs and constraints of the system under development. These requirements can be categorized into functional and non-functional requirements. Understanding each of these requirements helps software engineers to design and develop software that meets the user’s needs.

Description:

A functional requirement describes what the system should do and its behavior under certain conditions. It stipulates the system’s inputs, processes, and outputs. On the other hand, a non-functional requirement defines how a system should perform, including its qualities such as reliability, performance, and usability. This requirement addresses the system’s overall performance, security, and its ability to handle peak loads.

The Wilderness Weather Station case study is an excellent example of a software system with functional and non-functional requirements. Its user requirements seek to identify the needs of the system’s users, including the government of Canada who intends to deploy these stations in remote areas. These requirements include ensuring that the system has a variety of weather sensors that can measure temperature, wind speed, direction, barometric pressure, humidity, and rainfall. They also need to ensure that the data is transmitted to the satellite in the most economical way.

The system requirements contain a mix of both functional and non-functional requirements. Functional requirements include ensuring that the satellite box sends the right data to the control panel, and the application processes the data correctly. Non-functional requirements include ensuring that the data transmission is secure, the system is reliable, and the battery lasts long enough.

To make changes to the system, we can introduce a functional requirement that mandates the control panel to notify the users of any changes in weather conditions. We can also introduce a non-functional requirement that stipulates that the system should maintain a 99.9% uptime. The impact of these changes would involve ensuring that the system can handle the increased data traffic and that the user interface is designed to accommodate the new functionality.

Reference:

Sommerville, I. (2016). Software Engineering (10th ed.). Pearson Education Limited. Chapter 4.

Objectives:
– To understand the difference between functional and non-functional system requirements
– To develop an understanding of how to prioritize user and system requirements
– To comprehend how changes in functional and non-functional requirements can affect the development process
– To identify and define the components of the Wilderness Weather Station system

Learning Outcomes:
By the end of this exercise, students should be able to:
– Compare and contrast functional and non-functional system requirements and provide examples of each
– Prioritize and document user and system requirements
– Introduce functional and non-functional requirement changes and determine how they affect the development process
– Define the components of the Wilderness Weather Station system

Functional vs. Non-functional Requirements:
Functional requirements define what a system should do, while non-functional requirements define how a system should perform. An example of a functional requirement for the Wilderness Weather Station system could be the ability to automatically record and store weather data. An example of a non-functional requirement could be that the system must respond to user inputs within 2 seconds.

User Requirements:
1. The system should be able to collect and display temperature, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, humidity, and rainfall data.
2. The system should be able to transmit the collected data to a remote location.
3. The system should be able to operate on solar power or wind energy.
4. The system should be able to withstand extreme weather conditions.
5. The user should be able to access the collected data through a web-based interface.

Prioritized User Requirements:
1. The system should be able to collect and display temperature, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, humidity, and rainfall data.
2. The user should be able to access the collected data through a web-based interface.
3. The system should be able to operate on solar power or wind energy.
4. The system should be able to withstand extreme weather conditions.
5. The system should be able to transmit the collected data to a remote location.

System Requirements:
1. The system must be able to collect, process and store weather data continuously.
2. The system must be able to communicate with the satellite for data transmission.
3. The system must use efficient algorithms for data processing and storage to minimize satellite communication costs.
4. The system must be able to adjust to different types of weather sensors and satellite communication providers.
5. The system must be able to operate on both solar and wind energy.

Prioritized System Requirements:
1. The system must be able to collect, process and store weather data continuously.
2. The system must be able to communicate with the satellite for data transmission.
3. The system must be able to operate on both solar and wind energy.
4. The system must be able to adjust to different types of weather sensors and satellite communication providers.
5. The system must use efficient algorithms for data processing to minimize satellite communication costs.

Functional and Non-functional Changes:
Functional Change – The system should also include a feature to detect lightning strikes and issue a warning to the user. This feature could improve the safety of people working near the stations.
Non-functional Change – The system should be able to respond to user inputs within 1 second instead of 2 seconds. This would improve the user experience and ensure that users can retrieve information quickly.

Impact of Changes:
Functional Change – The addition of the lightning strike detection feature could require changes to the system’s algorithms and hardware, potentially impacting the development timeline and cost.
Non-functional Change – The change in response time may require changes in the system’s processing speed and algorithms, impacting development time and cost as well.

References:
Sommerville, I. (2011). Software engineering. Pearson Education. Chapter 4.

Solution 1:

Functional and Non-Functional System Requirements:

Functional and Non-functional requirements are two major categories of system requirements. The functional requirements specify what the system does, while non-functional requirements specify how the system performs. Non-functional requirements define characteristics like reliability, performance, security, usability, and scalability. An example of functional requirements for the Wilderness Weather Station system is taking weather readings like humidity, temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall amount, and wind speed and direction. An example of non-functional requirement is the ability of the system to withstand harsh weather conditions such as snow, rain, and strong winds without failing.

Solution 2:

Impact of Changing Requirements in the Wilderness Weather Station System:

When requirements of a software system change, it can have an impact on the development process. A modified requirement can result in added time, effort, and resources in the development process. For example, if a non-functional requirement is added to the Wilderness Weather Station system that specifies the need for temperature calibration, it may need to be tested again to ensure that it meets the new requirement. If there is a functional requirement to capture more data like air pressure readings from each weather station, it might need an additional sensor or alteration in the present measurement system. Such changes may increase the system complexity, and developers have to be thorough in testing and debugging the modified requirements.

In general, whenever clients ask for requirement changes, the developers must understand the scope of such changes on the software development process. This initiates the process of negotiating with relevant stakeholders and identifies how the changes can affect the system’s overall costs and schedule. Re-prioritization of requirements is crucial after implementing changes to the software engineering process in-order for it to exhibit better quality attributes like reliability, functionality, usability, and performance.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. “Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach” by Roger Pressman and Bruce Maxim
2. “Requirements Engineering: From System Goals to UML Models to Software Specifications” by Axel van Lamsweerde
3. “Software Requirements” by Karl Wiegers and Joy Beatty
4. “Mastering Software Project Requirements: A Framework for Successful Planning, Development & Alignment” by Barbara Davis
5. “A Practical Guide to SysML: The Systems Modeling Language” by Sanford Friedenthal and Alan Moore

Functional versus Non-Functional System Requirements:

Functional requirements are centered on the software’s behavior, describing particular features and functionalities that the system must perform. These requirements articulate the functionality of the system, including what the software should do. Non-functional requirements focus on the characteristics of the software, its performance, and usability, including qualities such as the reliability, security, and maintainability of the system.

An example of functional requirements for the Wilderness Weather Station case study could be the need for the system to report weather data every 15 minutes to the control panel application. An example of non-functional requirements could be the system’s ability to operate 24/7, regardless of weather conditions.

Similar asked questions:

1. What is the importance of prioritizing user and system requirements in software development?
2. How do functional and non-functional requirements differ in software engineering?
3. What role do user requirements play in the software development life cycle?
4. Can you provide examples of non-functional requirements in a software system?
5. What are some common practices for managing and documenting software requirements?

Reference:

Sommerville, I. (2015). Software Engineering (10th ed.). Pearson. Chapter 4.

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