Urinary Function: Mr. J.R. is a 73-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with clinical mani

  

Urinary Function:
Mr. J.R. is a 73-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis and possible renal injury. The patients chief complaints are fever, nausea with vomiting and diarrhea for 48 hours, weakness, dizziness, and a bothersome metallic taste in the mouth. The patient is pale and sweaty. He had been well until two days ago, when he began to experience severe nausea several hours after eating two burritos for supper. The burritos had been ordered from a local fast-food restaurant. The nausea persisted and he vomited twice with some relief. As the evening progressed, he continued to feel very bad and took some Pepto-Bismol to help settle his stomach. Soon thereafter, he began to feel achy and warm. His temperature at the time was 100. 5F. He has continued to experience nausea, vomiting, and a fever. He has not been able to tolerate any solid foods or liquids. Since yesterday, he has had 56 watery bowel movements. He has not noticed any blood in the stools. His wife brought him to the ER because he was becoming weak and dizzy when he tried to stand up. His wife denies any recent travel, use of antibiotics, laxatives, or excessive caffeine, or that her husband has an eating disorder.

Case Study Questions

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1. The attending physician is thinking that Mr. J.R. has developed an Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Analyzing the case presented name the possible types of Acute Kidney Injury. Link the clinical manifestations described to the different types of Acute Kidney injury.
2. Create a list of risk factors the patient might have and explain why.
3. Unfortunately, the damage on J.R. kidney became irreversible and he is now diagnosed with Chronic kidney disease. Please describe the complications that the patient might have on his Hematologic system (Coagulopathy and Anemia) and the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved.

Reproductive Function:
Ms. P.C. is a 19-year-old white female who reports a 2-day history of lower abdominal pain, nausea, emesis and a heavy, malodorous vaginal discharge. She states that she is single, heterosexual, and that she has been sexually active with only one partner for the past eight months. She has no previous history of genitourinary infections or sexually transmitted diseases. She denies IV drug use. Her LMP ended three days ago. Her last intercourse (vaginal) was eight days ago and she states that they did not use a condom. She admits to unprotected sex every once in a while. She noted an abnormal vaginal discharge yesterday and she describes it as thick, greenish-yellow in color, and very smelly. She denies both oral and rectal intercourse. She does not know if her partner has had a recent genitourinary tract infection, because he has been away on business for five days.
Microscopic Examination of Vaginal Discharge
(-) yeast or hyphae
(-) flagellated microbes
(+) white blood cells
(+) gram-negative intracellular diplococci

Case Study Questions

1. According to the case presented, including the clinical manifestations and microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge, what is the most probably diagnosis for Ms. P.C.? Support your answer and explain why you get to that diagnosis.
2. Based on the vaginal discharged described and the microscopic examination of the sample could you suggest which would be the microorganism involved?
3. Name the criteria you would use to recommend hospitalization for this patient

Submission Instructions:

You must complete both case studies.
Your initial post should be at least
500 words per case study, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources.

Introduction:
Urinary and reproductive functions are essential for maintaining good health in both men and women. However, conditions affecting these functions can lead to serious health complications. In this article, we will investigate two case studies and analyze the possible causes and complications of various disorders related to urinary and reproductive functions.

Description:
In the first case study, Mr. J.R. has been admitted to the hospital with symptoms of gastroenteritis and possible renal injury. Upon analysis, the attending physician suspects that he may have developed Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). We will discuss the different types of AKI and link the clinical manifestations described to each. Additionally, we will create a list of risk factors that could have contributed to the patient’s condition.

In the second case study, Ms. P.C. has reported lower abdominal pain, nausea, emesis, and a heavy vaginal discharge. The microscopic examination of the discharge revealed gram-negative intracellular diplococci, indicating a possible sexually transmitted infection. We will analyze the clinical manifestations and microscopic examination results to determine the possible diagnosis of the patient. Furthermore, we will describe the complications that the patient may face due to the infection.

what is the most probable diagnosis for Ms. P.C.? 2. Explain the pathophysiology involved in the most probable diagnosis for Ms. P.C. 3. List the potential complications that can arise from untreated or inadequately treated diagnosis in Ms. P.C. and explain their pathophysiology.

Objectives and Learning Outcomes for Urinary Function:

Objectives:
– To identify the types of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI).
– To link the clinical manifestations presented to the different types of AKI.
– To create a list of risk factors for developing AKI.
– To understand the complications of Chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the Hematologic system (Coagulopathy and Anemia) and the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved.

Learning Outcomes:
– Students will be able to differentiate between prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal types of AKI.
– Students will be able to identify the clinical manifestations of each type of AKI and link them to the underlying pathophysiology.
– Students will be able to list the risk factors associated with AKI and explain why they increase the risk of developing this condition.
– Students will be able to describe the pathophysiology behind Coagulopathy and Anemia in patients with CKD.

Objectives and Learning Outcomes for Reproductive Function:

Objectives:
– To diagnose the most probable condition in Ms. P.C. based on the case presentation and laboratory findings.
– To understand the pathophysiology involved in the most probable diagnosis.
– To identify the potential complications that can arise from untreated or inadequately treated diagnosis.

Learning Outcomes:
– Students will be able to diagnose the most probable condition in Ms. P.C. based on the case presentation and laboratory findings.
– Students will be able to describe the pathophysiology involved in the most probable condition.
– Students will be able to identify potential complications that can arise from untreated or inadequately treated diagnosis and explain their pathophysiology.

Solution 1: Possible Types of Acute Kidney Injury and their Clinical Manifestations
There are three types of Acute Kidney Injury, namely Pre-renal, Intrinsic Renal, and Post-renal. Pre-renal AKI occurs when there is a decrease in renal blood flow, leading to decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Intrinsic renal AKI occurs due to damage to the kidney parenchyma, leading to decreased GFR. Post-renal AKI occurs due to obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the bladder.
In this case, the possible types of AKI are Pre-renal and Intrinsic Renal. The clinical manifestations of Pre-renal AKI include decreased urine output, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine levels. The clinical manifestations of Intrinsic Renal AKI include oliguria or anuria, systemic inflammation, and metabolic acidosis.

Solution 2: Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease and Hematologic Complications
Some of the risk factors for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) include hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and smoking. CKD can lead to Hematologic complications such as anemia and coagulopathy. The pathophysiology behind anemia in CKD is a decrease in erythropoietin production due to the reduced functioning of the kidneys, leading to decreased red blood cell production. Coagulopathy in CKD occurs due to platelet dysfunction, abnormal von Willebrand factor, and reduced production of clotting factors by the liver. These abnormalities can lead to bleeding disorders and thrombotic events.

what is the most likely diagnosis for Ms. P.C.? 2. What are the possible complications if the patient’s infection is left untreated? 3. How can the patient prevent future occurrences of this type of infection? 4. What are the available treatments for the patient’s current infection and how effective are they? 5. Can the patient’s sexual partner(s) become infected with the same organism and how can they be treated?

Suggested Resources/Books:

Urinary Function:
1. Chronic Kidney Disease: A Practical Guide to Understanding and Management by Meguid El Nahas and Adeera Levin.
2. Acute Kidney Injury (Contributions to Nephrology, Vol. 156) by Rinaldo Bellomo, et al.
3. Nephrology Secrets Third Edition by Edgar V. Lerma.

Reproductive Function:
1. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 20th Edition by Dennis Kasper, Anthony Fauci, et al.
2. Textbook of Gynecology by DC Dutta.
3. Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Clinical Guide, Third edition by Catherine H. Ison.

Similar Asked Questions:

Urinary Function:
1. What are the risk factors for Acute Kidney Injury and how can they be prevented?
2. What are the common causes of Acute Kidney Injury and how are they treated?
3. What are the complications of Chronic Kidney Disease and how can they be managed?
4. What are the diagnostic tests for Kidney Disease and why are they important?
5. How can a patient with Chronic Kidney Disease maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent further kidney damage?

Reproductive Function:
1. What are the different types of sexually transmitted infections and their symptoms?
2. How can sexually transmitted infections be prevented and treated?
3. What are the risk factors for developing genitourinary infections and how can they be managed?
4. What are the available treatments for bacterial vaginosis and how effective are they?
5. How can a patient maintain optimal reproductive health and prevent future infections?

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