Should you push the stranger?

  

Week 2_Values and theories.pptxFor paper, you will identify an ethical dilemmaeither something that you have
recently faced in something that you
read or hear about on the news.
You will
then write one/two paragraph in which you briefly describe the event and all
relevant ethical issues, and the rest of your paper you will apply more then one theories from class to analyze the dilemma and form a recommendation forhow the dilemma should be resolved.
You will need to turn in of these short papers
(3 pages, DOUBLE spaced)
For theories see attachment.
Business Ethics
Week 2
Values & Theories
JOES DILEMMA
Joe is a fourteen-year-old boy who wanted to go to
camp very much. His father promised him he could
go if he saved up the money for it himself. So Joe
worked hard at his paper route and saved up the
$500 it cost to go to camp, and a little more besides.
But just before camp was going to start, his father
changed his mind. Some of his friends decided to go
on a special fishing trip, and Joe’s father was short of
the money it would cost. So he told Joe to give him
the money he had saved from the paper route. Joe
didn’t want to give up going to camp, so he thinks of
refusing to give his father the money.
JOES DILEMMA
Should Joe refuse to give his father
the money?
Why or why not?
A runaway trolley is headed for five people who
will be killed if it proceeds on its present
course. The only way to save them is to flip a
switch that will turn the trolley onto an
alternate set of tracks where it will kill one
person instead of five. Should you redirect the
trolley?
A runaway trolley again threatens to kill five people. You are
standing next to a large stranger on a footbridge that spans
the tracks between the oncoming trolley and the five people.
If you push the stranger off the bridge onto the tracks below
he will die, but his large body will stop the trolley from
reaching the others (you cannot jump because you are not big
enough to stop the train and he wont jump himself). Should
you push the stranger?
Agenda
Introduction to Ethics
Ethical Theories
Pros & Cons?
Theory Review
How to resolve ethical dilemmas
Case analysis
Movie Ticket
Parable of the Sadhu
Time for team project
Week 2:Values & Theories
Purpose: Provide a personal look at ethics
and morality
Personal Credo: To thine own self be true.
Who are you?
Abilities
Talents
Characteristics that define you
Make a list
Things I would never do to be successful
Things I would never do to make money
What are ethics?
Generally accepted rules of conduct that
govern society
Higher standard than law
You know it when you see it
Unfair
Dishonest
Unjust
Purpose of ethical theories: Move beyond
I think
Theories of Ethics
Divine Command Theory
Ethical Egoism Theory
Utilitarian Theory*
Categorical Imperative (Deontology)*
Rights Theory (Entitlement Theory)
Moral Relativism
Theory of Moral Development
Divine Command Theory
Decisions are made based on guidance
from a divine being
E.g., Ten Commandments, U.S. Constitution,
natural law
Joes Dilemma, Revisited
Using Divine Command Theory, make the
argument that:
Joe should keep the money
Thou shall not steal
Joe should give the money to his father
Honor thy father and thy mother
Divine Command Theory
Pros?
Can be simple
Wide buy-in in homogenous groups
Cons?
Creates conflict in heterogeneous groups
Conflicting principles
Ethical Egoism Theory
Everything is determined by self-interest
We should limit our judgment to our own
ethical egos and not interfere with judgment
of others
Laws are needed to maintain order
Adherents
Ayn Rand, Thomas Hobbes
there is a positive harmony of interests among free,
rational humans, such that no moral agent can
rationally coerce another person consistently with
his own long-term self-interest
Adam Smith
Joes Dilemma, Revisited
Using Ethical Egoism Theory, make the
argument that:
Joe should keep the money
He wants to go to camp!
Joe should give the money to his father
He will suffer if he disobeys his father
Ethical Egoism Theory
Pros?
Realistic (?)
Unethical behavior can be constrained
Government (Hobbes)
Free market (Smith and Rand)
Cons?
Inaccurate?
What makes people happy?
Spending on Self or Others
N = 632: Nationally representative
American sample
DV: General happiness
Do you feel happy, in general?
Yes, Most of the time, Sometimes, Rarely, No
IVs
Personal spending (M = $1,714 / mo.)
Bills, expenses, gifts for self
Prosocial spending (M = $146 / mo.)
Gifts for others, donations to charity
Income
What Makes People Happy?
Persona l
S pending
P rosocia l
S pending
What Makes People Happy?
Persona l
S pending
P rosocia l
S pending
Incom e
Experimental Windfalls
Windfall size
$50
Spending instructions: Spend the money by
5pm that day
Personal: Told to spend the money on a bill, expense,
or gift for self
Examples: Earrings, DVD, food/drinks for self
Prosocial: Gift for someone else or charitable
donation
Examples: Toys for siblings, donations to the homeless,
food/drinks for friends
Pre & Post (called participants after 5pm)
Happiness
Experimental Windfalls
Utilitarian Theory
Objective: Create the greatest possible
well-being
Greatest Happiness Principle (Mill): The
greatest good for the greatest number
Adherents
Jeremy Bentham
John Stuart Mill
Consequentialist view: an action is good if it
has good consequences (regardless of
motives behind action) for well-being
What Would Mills Do?
What Would Mills Do?
The Utilitarian Algorithm
1.
2.
3.
4.
Specify the range of possible actions
Identify all who are affected by the
action(s)
Estimate the aggregate consequences of
the actions for their utilities
Choose the action with the greatest
utility sum
Joes Dilemma, Revisited
Using Utilitarian Theory, make the argument
that:
Joe should keep the money
Joe should give the money to his father
Utilitarian Theory
Pros?
Fair
Rational
Easily applied
Cons?
Who decides? What is good?
Costs/benefits of nonmonetary outcomes?
No consideration of justice or rights
Deontology
We cant know the results prior to an action, so
what is ethical is determined by principles of
individual rights & justice
People are duty-bound or morally obligated to
respect individual rights
Actions are inherently ethical or unethical
independent of the consequences
Categorical Imperative
Immanuel Kant
Principles
Principle of Humanity
Principle of Universal Law
Principle of Humanity
Treat others always as an ends in
themselves and never merely as means
This principle gives rise to conceptions of
intrinsic rights and correlative duties
If I lie to you, you are not being considered as
an equally important end. Because of this, you
have a right not to be lied to, and I have a duty
to tell the truth.
Principle of Universal Law
Act only according to that maxim
whereby you can at the same time believe
that it should become a universal law
Would I want this act performed on me
rather than by me (the principle of
reversibility)
Only actions stemming from maxims that pass
universalibility test are permissible
Joes Dilemma, Revisited
Using Deontology, make the argument that:
Joe should keep the money
He has a right to keep what he earned.
Joes father would not like it if Joe took
money from him
Joe should give the money to his father
Joe should show loyalty to his father
Joe should repay his father for past kindness
Deontological Theory
Pros?
Fair
Simple
Cons?
Principles are vague
Hard to resolve conflicts of interest
Contrasting Deontology and
Utilitarianism
Deontologists
Actions have only
Intrinsic Value
M OT IV E S
ACT IONS
CONS E QU E NCE S
Utilitarians
Actions have only
Extrinsic Value
Rights Theory (Entitlement Theory)
Main contributor: Robert Nozick
Two principles
1. Everyone has a set of rights
2. Its up to the government to protect those
rights
Issue: Government made up of utilitarians,
deontologists, etc.
Moral Relativism
Time and place ethics
No absolute rules
The situation dictates (and justifies) the
action taken
Stages of Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg
Three levels of Moral Development
Level 1: Pre-Conventional
Level 2: Conventional
Level 3: Post-Conventional
Two stages per level
Kohlbergs stages of moral development
Pre-Conventional Level
Stage 1: What are the consequences?
Joe should give his dad the money so his dad doesnt get
mad.
Joe should keep the money so he wont miss the
camping trip.
Stage 2: Whats in it for me? (Ethical Egoism)
Joe should give his dad the money so his dad will do him
favors in the future.
Joe should keep the money because he wants to go
camping.
Kohlbergs stages of moral development
Conventional Level
Stage 3: Be a good boy (or girl)
Joe should give his dad the money because good sons
obey their fathers.
Joe should keep the money because his dad will respect
him for standing up for himself.
Stage 4: Obey laws and social conventions
Joe should give his dad the money because his father is
his guardian and therefore is legally entitled to it.
Joe should keep the money because he is legally entitled
to the money via the contract with his employer.
Kohlbergs stages of moral development
Post-Conventional Level
Stage 5: Human rights transcend laws
Joe should keep the money because his father
demanded it, rather than asked for it, and free will is an
unalienable human right.
Stage 6: Universal human ethics (Deontology)
Joe should keep the money because his father broke a
promise and promises are sacred.
Joe should give his father the money because the bible
says to obey your mother and father.
Which stage are you at?
Stage 1: What are the consequences?
Stage 2: Whats in it for me?
Stage 3: Be a good boy
Stage 4: Obey laws and social conventions
Stage 5: Human rights transcend laws
Stage 6: Universal human ethics must be
followed
Takeaways
Ethical theory deals with the reasoning
behind a decision or action, not with the
decisions or actions themselves
In other words, there will never be an ethical
theory that says pollution is wrong
Instead, theories provide frameworks that
help us objectively evaluate how ethical a
behavior is
Back-to-school Speech
President Obama made a back-to-school
speech last Fall
It was scheduled during the middle of the
day, and principals were encouraged to
allow students to watch
Parents and politicians raised concerns
about the speech
Taking time from school day
No parental filter
What do you think?
Setting the political issues aside, assess
the ethical issues involved in the
presidents speech
Does the content of the speech matter?
Which ethical theory is most
useful/appropriate in assessing this
situation?
Types of Ethical Dilemmas
Taking things that dont belong to you
Saying things that you know are not true
Giving or allowing false impressions
Buying influence or engaging in conflict of
interest
Hiding or divulging information
Taking unfair advantage
Types of Ethical Dilemmas
Committing acts of personal corruption
Perpetrating interpersonal abuse
Permitting organizational abuse
Violating rules
Condoning unethical actions
Balancing ethical dilemmas
Decision Criteria for Ethical Reasoning
Moral reasoning must be logical
Factual evidence cited to support a
persons judgment should be accurate,
relevant, and complete
Ethical standards used should be
consistent
A simple test:
What is my motivation for choosing a
course of action?
Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
Above all, do no harm
Peter Drucker
Google: Dont be evil
Front-page-of-the-newspaper test
How would a 3rd party (a reporter) view your
actions?
Imagine the worst possible headline
Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
Blanchard-Peale Model
1. Is it legal?
2. Is it balanced?
3. How does it make me feel?
Wall Street Journal Model
1. Am I in compliance with the law?
2. What contribution does this action make to
the company, shareholders, etc.?
3. What are the short- and long-term
consequences?
Summary So Far
We face many types of ethical dilemmas
Ethical theories give us a framework to
use to understand these dilemmas and
help to shape our views
Simple (or complex) models can guide us
as we navigate these dilemmas
Case Analysis
Put theory into practice
Apply course concepts to real-world
situations
Analyze ethical issues, make
recommendations, gain experience
Case Analysis
1.
2.
3.
Make sure you have a grasp of all of the
facts available. Be sure you are familiar
with all the facts.
List any information you would like to
have but dont and what assumptions
you would have to make, if any, in
resolving the dilemma.
Take each person involved (primary and
secondary stakeholders) and list any
concerns they face and might have.
Case Analysis
4.
5.
6.
Develop a list of resolutions using
various models.
Evaluate the resolution for costs,
legalities and impact. Try to determine
how each of the parties will react to and
will be affected by each of the proposed
resolutions.
Make a recommendation.
The Movie Ticket
You and your friend have purchased movie
tickets to see Home Alone. After seeing the
movie, you realize as you are walking
down the multiplex hallway that no
theater employees are there and that you
could slip into Home Alone II and see that
at absolutely no cost.Your friend says,
Why not? Whos to know? Besides, it
doesnt hurt anyone. Look at the price of
a movie these days. These people are
making money!
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
Make sure you have a grasp of all of the
facts available. Be sure you are familiar
with all the facts.
1.
People involved: You and your friend
You bought a ticket for only the first Home
Alone
No theater employees in sight
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
List any information you would like to
have but dont and what assumptions you
would have to make, if any, in resolving
the dilemma.
2.
Is it illegal?
Your friend assumes you wont get caught
Is it hurting anyone?
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
Take each person involved (primary and
secondary stakeholders) and list any
concerns they face and might have.
3.
You and your friend
Theater
People associated with second movie
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
Develop a list of resolutions using
various models.
4.
Golden rule
Above all, do no harm
Blanchard-Peale
Is it legal? Is it balanced? How does it make me
feel?
Front-of-the-newspaper
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
5.
Evaluate the resolution for costs,
legalities and impact. Try to determine
how each of the parties will react to and
will be affected by each of the proposed
resolutions.
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
Make a recommendation.
6.
Go for it! Home Alone II is awesome!
No way! Ill just download (illegally) it later.
The Parable of the Sadhu
What are the facts?
What information are we missing?
Assumptions we need to make?
Who is involved here? What are their
concerns?
The Parable of the Sadhu
Possible resolutions? Which models
should we use?
What are the costs and benefits of each
possible resolution?
Make a recommendation what should
have happened? How can we influence
future actions in similar situations?
The Parable of the Sadhu
Why do you think no one made sure the
sadhu was going to be fine?
Are the rules of the mountain different
from the rules of our day-to-day lives?
Why or why not?
Do you think the outcome would have
been different if it was an US man or
woman?
Team Project
Presentations will be based on case
studies assigned in Week 3
All presentations should:
Be around 10-15 minutes
Summarize facts, analyze ethical issues,
provide recommendations
Better presentations will include:
Appropriate PowerPoint slides
Interactive discussion/class activity
Appropriate video clips
Team Projects: Standards of
Participation
What do you, as a team, expect from each
team member?
Regular attendance to take advantage of in-class
work time?
Responsiveness to emails?
Meetings outside of class?
Specific time commitments?
Responsibility for assigned role in team?
Removing a Team Member
What is the procedure for removing a team
member who fails to meet participation
requirements?
3 strikes?
No second chances?
Anything goes?
How will group decide?
Majority vote?
Violation of procedure = immediate
disqualification?
Assignment
As a team, determine standards of
participation and requirements for
removing team members
All team members must read and sign
these standards
Turn in to instructor:
List of team members
Team standards and procedures
**You may decide to create an electronic
version. If so, email this to me

Introduction:

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Ethics and morality play an essential role in our actions, choices, and decisions. It guides us to make the right decisions in challenging situations that involve ethical dilemmas. This week’s focus is on values and theories of ethics. The purpose is to understand and apply different ethical theories to analyze and resolve ethical dilemmas. In this paper, we will discuss Joe’s dilemma, a classic ethical dilemma, and apply different theories to analyze and suggest recommendations to resolve the problem.

Description:

Joe’s dilemma revolves around a 14-year-old boy who worked hard to save $500 to attend a camp he always wanted to go to. Joe’s father initially promised him that he could go if he saved enough money on his own. However, just before the start of the camp, Joe’s father asked him to give the money to him, citing his own financial needs as a justification. The dilemma arises when Joe has to decide whether he should refuse his father’s request to pursue his camp dream.

This paper aims to analyze this ethical dilemma using different ethical theories, such as Divine Command Theory, Ethical Egoism Theory, and Utilitarian Theory, to recommend a course of action. We will first provide an overview of ethics and ethical theories to understand the underlying principles guiding our actions. Next, we will apply different ethical theories to understand and evaluate Joe’s dilemma. Finally, we will offer recommendations on how to best resolve Joe’s dilemma while keeping in mind the relevant ethical issues. By the end, readers will have a better understanding of how to apply ethical theories to real-life situations while making sound and just decisions.

Objectives:
– To identify an ethical dilemma and analyze it using ethical theories.
– To comprehend the purpose of ethical theories.
– To apply more than one ethical theory to analyze ethical dilemmas in a business context.
– To form a recommendation for how the dilemma should be resolved.

Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
– Identify an ethical dilemma and all the relevant ethical issues involved.
– Apply ethical theories such as Divine Command Theory, Ethical Egoism Theory, and Utilitarian Theory to analyze ethical dilemmas.
– Formulate a recommendation for how the ethical dilemma should be resolved.
– Understand the purpose of ethical theories and their role in decision-making.
– Develop a personal credo based on personal abilities, talents, and characteristics that define oneself.
– Recognize and explain the generally accepted rules of conduct that govern society higher than laws.

Solution 1: Applying Utilitarian Theory to Joe’s Dilemma

Joe’s dilemma presents us with a moral dilemma of whether Joe should refuse to give the money his father has forced him to surrender, ultimately stopping him from going to camp. Applying Utilitarian Theory within this situation involves understanding the consequences of Joe’s choice to either give his father the money or refuse to do so. Utilitarian Theory states that one should act in a manner that results in the greatest good for the greatest number. In this case, Joe’s decision to give his father the money would result in his father’s happiness and satisfaction, considering he could then go on the fishing trip he planned. However, Joe’s happiness would significantly decrease as he wouldn’t be able to go to camp. On the other hand, not giving the money would result in Joe’s happiness and satisfaction, but his father’s happiness would decrease. Considering both these outcomes, the decision that results in the greater good is for Joe to give his father the money, as only one person would be unhappy as opposed to two.

Solution 2: Applying Utilitarian Theory to the Trolley Problem

The Trolley Problem is a classic thought experiment in ethics that involves a runaway trolley headed towards five people. The only way to save them is by flipping a switch that will turn the trolley onto an alternate set of tracks where it will kill one person instead of five. Applying Utilitarian Theory within this situation involves understanding the consequences of redirecting the trolley or leaving it as it is. Redirecting the trolley would result in the death of only one person, while leaving it as it is would result in the death of five people. The decision that results in the greater good is to redirect the trolley, as only one person would die instead of five. Although this decision would still result in someone’s death, it ultimately involves making the difficult decision that would cause the least amount of harm.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. “Ethics for the Real World” by Ronald A. Howard and Clinton D. Korver
2. “Moral Choices: An Introduction to Ethics” by Scott B. Rae
3. “The Fundamentals of Ethics” by Russ Shafer-Landau

Similar asked questions:

1. What are some common ethical dilemmas that arise in everyday life?
2. How can ethical theories be applied to real-life situations?
3. What role do personal values play in ethical decision-making?
4. Can ethical violations ever be justified in certain situations?
5. How have changes in technology and globalization impacted ethical considerations in business?Week 2_Values and theories.pptxFor paper, you will identify an ethical dilemmaeither something that you have
recently faced in something that you
read or hear about on the news.
You will
then write one/two paragraph in which you briefly describe the event and all
relevant ethical issues, and the rest of your paper you will apply more then one theories from class to analyze the dilemma and form a recommendation forhow the dilemma should be resolved.
You will need to turn in of these short papers
(3 pages, DOUBLE spaced)
For theories see attachment.
Business Ethics
Week 2
Values & Theories
JOES DILEMMA
Joe is a fourteen-year-old boy who wanted to go to
camp very much. His father promised him he could
go if he saved up the money for it himself. So Joe
worked hard at his paper route and saved up the
$500 it cost to go to camp, and a little more besides.
But just before camp was going to start, his father
changed his mind. Some of his friends decided to go
on a special fishing trip, and Joe’s father was short of
the money it would cost. So he told Joe to give him
the money he had saved from the paper route. Joe
didn’t want to give up going to camp, so he thinks of
refusing to give his father the money.
JOES DILEMMA
Should Joe refuse to give his father
the money?
Why or why not?
A runaway trolley is headed for five people who
will be killed if it proceeds on its present
course. The only way to save them is to flip a
switch that will turn the trolley onto an
alternate set of tracks where it will kill one
person instead of five. Should you redirect the
trolley?
A runaway trolley again threatens to kill five people. You are
standing next to a large stranger on a footbridge that spans
the tracks between the oncoming trolley and the five people.
If you push the stranger off the bridge onto the tracks below
he will die, but his large body will stop the trolley from
reaching the others (you cannot jump because you are not big
enough to stop the train and he wont jump himself). Should
you push the stranger?
Agenda
Introduction to Ethics
Ethical Theories
Pros & Cons?
Theory Review
How to resolve ethical dilemmas
Case analysis
Movie Ticket
Parable of the Sadhu
Time for team project
Week 2:Values & Theories
Purpose: Provide a personal look at ethics
and morality
Personal Credo: To thine own self be true.
Who are you?
Abilities
Talents
Characteristics that define you
Make a list
Things I would never do to be successful
Things I would never do to make money
What are ethics?
Generally accepted rules of conduct that
govern society
Higher standard than law
You know it when you see it
Unfair
Dishonest
Unjust
Purpose of ethical theories: Move beyond
I think
Theories of Ethics
Divine Command Theory
Ethical Egoism Theory
Utilitarian Theory*
Categorical Imperative (Deontology)*
Rights Theory (Entitlement Theory)
Moral Relativism
Theory of Moral Development
Divine Command Theory
Decisions are made based on guidance
from a divine being
E.g., Ten Commandments, U.S. Constitution,
natural law
Joes Dilemma, Revisited
Using Divine Command Theory, make the
argument that:
Joe should keep the money
Thou shall not steal
Joe should give the money to his father
Honor thy father and thy mother
Divine Command Theory
Pros?
Can be simple
Wide buy-in in homogenous groups
Cons?
Creates conflict in heterogeneous groups
Conflicting principles
Ethical Egoism Theory
Everything is determined by self-interest
We should limit our judgment to our own
ethical egos and not interfere with judgment
of others
Laws are needed to maintain order
Adherents
Ayn Rand, Thomas Hobbes
there is a positive harmony of interests among free,
rational humans, such that no moral agent can
rationally coerce another person consistently with
his own long-term self-interest
Adam Smith
Joes Dilemma, Revisited
Using Ethical Egoism Theory, make the
argument that:
Joe should keep the money
He wants to go to camp!
Joe should give the money to his father
He will suffer if he disobeys his father
Ethical Egoism Theory
Pros?
Realistic (?)
Unethical behavior can be constrained
Government (Hobbes)
Free market (Smith and Rand)
Cons?
Inaccurate?
What makes people happy?
Spending on Self or Others
N = 632: Nationally representative
American sample
DV: General happiness
Do you feel happy, in general?
Yes, Most of the time, Sometimes, Rarely, No
IVs
Personal spending (M = $1,714 / mo.)
Bills, expenses, gifts for self
Prosocial spending (M = $146 / mo.)
Gifts for others, donations to charity
Income
What Makes People Happy?
Persona l
S pending
P rosocia l
S pending
What Makes People Happy?
Persona l
S pending
P rosocia l
S pending
Incom e
Experimental Windfalls
Windfall size
$50
Spending instructions: Spend the money by
5pm that day
Personal: Told to spend the money on a bill, expense,
or gift for self
Examples: Earrings, DVD, food/drinks for self
Prosocial: Gift for someone else or charitable
donation
Examples: Toys for siblings, donations to the homeless,
food/drinks for friends
Pre & Post (called participants after 5pm)
Happiness
Experimental Windfalls
Utilitarian Theory
Objective: Create the greatest possible
well-being
Greatest Happiness Principle (Mill): The
greatest good for the greatest number
Adherents
Jeremy Bentham
John Stuart Mill
Consequentialist view: an action is good if it
has good consequences (regardless of
motives behind action) for well-being
What Would Mills Do?
What Would Mills Do?
The Utilitarian Algorithm
1.
2.
3.
4.
Specify the range of possible actions
Identify all who are affected by the
action(s)
Estimate the aggregate consequences of
the actions for their utilities
Choose the action with the greatest
utility sum
Joes Dilemma, Revisited
Using Utilitarian Theory, make the argument
that:
Joe should keep the money
Joe should give the money to his father
Utilitarian Theory
Pros?
Fair
Rational
Easily applied
Cons?
Who decides? What is good?
Costs/benefits of nonmonetary outcomes?
No consideration of justice or rights
Deontology
We cant know the results prior to an action, so
what is ethical is determined by principles of
individual rights & justice
People are duty-bound or morally obligated to
respect individual rights
Actions are inherently ethical or unethical
independent of the consequences
Categorical Imperative
Immanuel Kant
Principles
Principle of Humanity
Principle of Universal Law
Principle of Humanity
Treat others always as an ends in
themselves and never merely as means
This principle gives rise to conceptions of
intrinsic rights and correlative duties
If I lie to you, you are not being considered as
an equally important end. Because of this, you
have a right not to be lied to, and I have a duty
to tell the truth.
Principle of Universal Law
Act only according to that maxim
whereby you can at the same time believe
that it should become a universal law
Would I want this act performed on me
rather than by me (the principle of
reversibility)
Only actions stemming from maxims that pass
universalibility test are permissible
Joes Dilemma, Revisited
Using Deontology, make the argument that:
Joe should keep the money
He has a right to keep what he earned.
Joes father would not like it if Joe took
money from him
Joe should give the money to his father
Joe should show loyalty to his father
Joe should repay his father for past kindness
Deontological Theory
Pros?
Fair
Simple
Cons?
Principles are vague
Hard to resolve conflicts of interest
Contrasting Deontology and
Utilitarianism
Deontologists
Actions have only
Intrinsic Value
M OT IV E S
ACT IONS
CONS E QU E NCE S
Utilitarians
Actions have only
Extrinsic Value
Rights Theory (Entitlement Theory)
Main contributor: Robert Nozick
Two principles
1. Everyone has a set of rights
2. Its up to the government to protect those
rights
Issue: Government made up of utilitarians,
deontologists, etc.
Moral Relativism
Time and place ethics
No absolute rules
The situation dictates (and justifies) the
action taken
Stages of Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg
Three levels of Moral Development
Level 1: Pre-Conventional
Level 2: Conventional
Level 3: Post-Conventional
Two stages per level
Kohlbergs stages of moral development
Pre-Conventional Level
Stage 1: What are the consequences?
Joe should give his dad the money so his dad doesnt get
mad.
Joe should keep the money so he wont miss the
camping trip.
Stage 2: Whats in it for me? (Ethical Egoism)
Joe should give his dad the money so his dad will do him
favors in the future.
Joe should keep the money because he wants to go
camping.
Kohlbergs stages of moral development
Conventional Level
Stage 3: Be a good boy (or girl)
Joe should give his dad the money because good sons
obey their fathers.
Joe should keep the money because his dad will respect
him for standing up for himself.
Stage 4: Obey laws and social conventions
Joe should give his dad the money because his father is
his guardian and therefore is legally entitled to it.
Joe should keep the money because he is legally entitled
to the money via the contract with his employer.
Kohlbergs stages of moral development
Post-Conventional Level
Stage 5: Human rights transcend laws
Joe should keep the money because his father
demanded it, rather than asked for it, and free will is an
unalienable human right.
Stage 6: Universal human ethics (Deontology)
Joe should keep the money because his father broke a
promise and promises are sacred.
Joe should give his father the money because the bible
says to obey your mother and father.
Which stage are you at?
Stage 1: What are the consequences?
Stage 2: Whats in it for me?
Stage 3: Be a good boy
Stage 4: Obey laws and social conventions
Stage 5: Human rights transcend laws
Stage 6: Universal human ethics must be
followed
Takeaways
Ethical theory deals with the reasoning
behind a decision or action, not with the
decisions or actions themselves
In other words, there will never be an ethical
theory that says pollution is wrong
Instead, theories provide frameworks that
help us objectively evaluate how ethical a
behavior is
Back-to-school Speech
President Obama made a back-to-school
speech last Fall
It was scheduled during the middle of the
day, and principals were encouraged to
allow students to watch
Parents and politicians raised concerns
about the speech
Taking time from school day
No parental filter
What do you think?
Setting the political issues aside, assess
the ethical issues involved in the
presidents speech
Does the content of the speech matter?
Which ethical theory is most
useful/appropriate in assessing this
situation?
Types of Ethical Dilemmas
Taking things that dont belong to you
Saying things that you know are not true
Giving or allowing false impressions
Buying influence or engaging in conflict of
interest
Hiding or divulging information
Taking unfair advantage
Types of Ethical Dilemmas
Committing acts of personal corruption
Perpetrating interpersonal abuse
Permitting organizational abuse
Violating rules
Condoning unethical actions
Balancing ethical dilemmas
Decision Criteria for Ethical Reasoning
Moral reasoning must be logical
Factual evidence cited to support a
persons judgment should be accurate,
relevant, and complete
Ethical standards used should be
consistent
A simple test:
What is my motivation for choosing a
course of action?
Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
Above all, do no harm
Peter Drucker
Google: Dont be evil
Front-page-of-the-newspaper test
How would a 3rd party (a reporter) view your
actions?
Imagine the worst possible headline
Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
Blanchard-Peale Model
1. Is it legal?
2. Is it balanced?
3. How does it make me feel?
Wall Street Journal Model
1. Am I in compliance with the law?
2. What contribution does this action make to
the company, shareholders, etc.?
3. What are the short- and long-term
consequences?
Summary So Far
We face many types of ethical dilemmas
Ethical theories give us a framework to
use to understand these dilemmas and
help to shape our views
Simple (or complex) models can guide us
as we navigate these dilemmas
Case Analysis
Put theory into practice
Apply course concepts to real-world
situations
Analyze ethical issues, make
recommendations, gain experience
Case Analysis
1.
2.
3.
Make sure you have a grasp of all of the
facts available. Be sure you are familiar
with all the facts.
List any information you would like to
have but dont and what assumptions
you would have to make, if any, in
resolving the dilemma.
Take each person involved (primary and
secondary stakeholders) and list any
concerns they face and might have.
Case Analysis
4.
5.
6.
Develop a list of resolutions using
various models.
Evaluate the resolution for costs,
legalities and impact. Try to determine
how each of the parties will react to and
will be affected by each of the proposed
resolutions.
Make a recommendation.
The Movie Ticket
You and your friend have purchased movie
tickets to see Home Alone. After seeing the
movie, you realize as you are walking
down the multiplex hallway that no
theater employees are there and that you
could slip into Home Alone II and see that
at absolutely no cost.Your friend says,
Why not? Whos to know? Besides, it
doesnt hurt anyone. Look at the price of
a movie these days. These people are
making money!
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
Make sure you have a grasp of all of the
facts available. Be sure you are familiar
with all the facts.
1.
People involved: You and your friend
You bought a ticket for only the first Home
Alone
No theater employees in sight
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
List any information you would like to
have but dont and what assumptions you
would have to make, if any, in resolving
the dilemma.
2.
Is it illegal?
Your friend assumes you wont get caught
Is it hurting anyone?
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
Take each person involved (primary and
secondary stakeholders) and list any
concerns they face and might have.
3.
You and your friend
Theater
People associated with second movie
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
Develop a list of resolutions using
various models.
4.
Golden rule
Above all, do no harm
Blanchard-Peale
Is it legal? Is it balanced? How does it make me
feel?
Front-of-the-newspaper
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
5.
Evaluate the resolution for costs,
legalities and impact. Try to determine
how each of the parties will react to and
will be affected by each of the proposed
resolutions.
The Movie Ticket
You find you hesitate just a bit. Should you
take in the extra movie for free?
Make a recommendation.
6.
Go for it! Home Alone II is awesome!
No way! Ill just download (illegally) it later.
The Parable of the Sadhu
What are the facts?
What information are we missing?
Assumptions we need to make?
Who is involved here? What are their
concerns?
The Parable of the Sadhu
Possible resolutions? Which models
should we use?
What are the costs and benefits of each
possible resolution?
Make a recommendation what should
have happened? How can we influence
future actions in similar situations?
The Parable of the Sadhu
Why do you think no one made sure the
sadhu was going to be fine?
Are the rules of the mountain different
from the rules of our day-to-day lives?
Why or why not?
Do you think the outcome would have
been different if it was an US man or
woman?
Team Project
Presentations will be based on case
studies assigned in Week 3
All presentations should:
Be around 10-15 minutes
Summarize facts, analyze ethical issues,
provide recommendations
Better presentations will include:
Appropriate PowerPoint slides
Interactive discussion/class activity
Appropriate video clips
Team Projects: Standards of
Participation
What do you, as a team, expect from each
team member?
Regular attendance to take advantage of in-class
work time?
Responsiveness to emails?
Meetings outside of class?
Specific time commitments?
Responsibility for assigned role in team?
Removing a Team Member
What is the procedure for removing a team
member who fails to meet participation
requirements?
3 strikes?
No second chances?
Anything goes?
How will group decide?
Majority vote?
Violation of procedure = immediate
disqualification?
Assignment
As a team, determine standards of
participation and requirements for
removing team members
All team members must read and sign
these standards
Turn in to instructor:
List of team members
Team standards and procedures
**You may decide to create an electronic
version. If so, email this to me

Introduction:

Ethics and morality play an essential role in our actions, choices, and decisions. It guides us to make the right decisions in challenging situations that involve ethical dilemmas. This week’s focus is on values and theories of ethics. The purpose is to understand and apply different ethical theories to analyze and resolve ethical dilemmas. In this paper, we will discuss Joe’s dilemma, a classic ethical dilemma, and apply different theories to analyze and suggest recommendations to resolve the problem.

Description:

Joe’s dilemma revolves around a 14-year-old boy who worked hard to save $500 to attend a camp he always wanted to go to. Joe’s father initially promised him that he could go if he saved enough money on his own. However, just before the start of the camp, Joe’s father asked him to give the money to him, citing his own financial needs as a justification. The dilemma arises when Joe has to decide whether he should refuse his father’s request to pursue his camp dream.

This paper aims to analyze this ethical dilemma using different ethical theories, such as Divine Command Theory, Ethical Egoism Theory, and Utilitarian Theory, to recommend a course of action. We will first provide an overview of ethics and ethical theories to understand the underlying principles guiding our actions. Next, we will apply different ethical theories to understand and evaluate Joe’s dilemma. Finally, we will offer recommendations on how to best resolve Joe’s dilemma while keeping in mind the relevant ethical issues. By the end, readers will have a better understanding of how to apply ethical theories to real-life situations while making sound and just decisions.

Objectives:
– To identify an ethical dilemma and analyze it using ethical theories.
– To comprehend the purpose of ethical theories.
– To apply more than one ethical theory to analyze ethical dilemmas in a business context.
– To form a recommendation for how the dilemma should be resolved.

Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
– Identify an ethical dilemma and all the relevant ethical issues involved.
– Apply ethical theories such as Divine Command Theory, Ethical Egoism Theory, and Utilitarian Theory to analyze ethical dilemmas.
– Formulate a recommendation for how the ethical dilemma should be resolved.
– Understand the purpose of ethical theories and their role in decision-making.
– Develop a personal credo based on personal abilities, talents, and characteristics that define oneself.
– Recognize and explain the generally accepted rules of conduct that govern society higher than laws.

Solution 1: Applying Utilitarian Theory to Joe’s Dilemma

Joe’s dilemma presents us with a moral dilemma of whether Joe should refuse to give the money his father has forced him to surrender, ultimately stopping him from going to camp. Applying Utilitarian Theory within this situation involves understanding the consequences of Joe’s choice to either give his father the money or refuse to do so. Utilitarian Theory states that one should act in a manner that results in the greatest good for the greatest number. In this case, Joe’s decision to give his father the money would result in his father’s happiness and satisfaction, considering he could then go on the fishing trip he planned. However, Joe’s happiness would significantly decrease as he wouldn’t be able to go to camp. On the other hand, not giving the money would result in Joe’s happiness and satisfaction, but his father’s happiness would decrease. Considering both these outcomes, the decision that results in the greater good is for Joe to give his father the money, as only one person would be unhappy as opposed to two.

Solution 2: Applying Utilitarian Theory to the Trolley Problem

The Trolley Problem is a classic thought experiment in ethics that involves a runaway trolley headed towards five people. The only way to save them is by flipping a switch that will turn the trolley onto an alternate set of tracks where it will kill one person instead of five. Applying Utilitarian Theory within this situation involves understanding the consequences of redirecting the trolley or leaving it as it is. Redirecting the trolley would result in the death of only one person, while leaving it as it is would result in the death of five people. The decision that results in the greater good is to redirect the trolley, as only one person would die instead of five. Although this decision would still result in someone’s death, it ultimately involves making the difficult decision that would cause the least amount of harm.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. “Ethics for the Real World” by Ronald A. Howard and Clinton D. Korver
2. “Moral Choices: An Introduction to Ethics” by Scott B. Rae
3. “The Fundamentals of Ethics” by Russ Shafer-Landau

Similar asked questions:

1. What are some common ethical dilemmas that arise in everyday life?
2. How can ethical theories be applied to real-life situations?
3. What role do personal values play in ethical decision-making?
4. Can ethical violations ever be justified in certain situations?
5. How have changes in technology and globalization impacted ethical considerations in business?

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