How does the pharmacology of psychoactive drugs affect neurotransmitters?

  

Rapid Review 2Select a psychoactive drug that is of pharmacological interest to you, but not one you will review as part of your Critical Review or one that was included in your previous Rapid Review. For this paper, you may choose drugs of abuse; however, the paper must focus on the pharmacology of the drug and not on the social or addictive aspects. If you focus on addiction and social impact, your paper will not receive credit.In addition to the text, research a minimum of three peer-reviewed articles published within the last five years on your selected drug. Prepare a three-page summary of the drug using thePSY630 Rapid Review Example paperas a guide.In your Rapid Review, analyze and explain the pharmacological aspects of the drug as they relate to the following: neurotransmitters affected, receptors, route of administration, half-life, doses, side effects, drug interactions, contraindications, and other important facets of the drug. Explain these aspects of the drug in terms of the psychiatric disorders indicated for the drug and the issue(s) associated with that use. If there is no accepted therapeutic use for the drug, evaluate and describe the actions of the drug with regard to the abuse process.The paper:Must be three to five double-spaced pages in length, excluding title page and references page, and it must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in theAshford Writing Center.Must include a title page with the following:Title of paperYour nameCourse name and numberYour instructors nameDate submittedMust address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must use at least three peer-reviewed sources in addition to the text.Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Introduction:

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The use of psychoactive drugs for various psychiatric disorders has been a topic of debate for many years. The pharmacological effects of these drugs on the brain and the human body have been the subject of numerous studies and research in recent times. This paper aims to provide an in-depth analysis of a psychoactive drug that is of pharmacological interest, focusing on its pharmacology and not on its addictive or social aspects. The paper will highlight the neurotransmitters affected, receptors, route of administration, half-life, doses, side effects, drug interactions, contraindications, and other important facets of the drug, in relation to the psychiatric disorders indicated for the drug and the issue(s) associated with that use.

Description:

The Rapid Review 2 assignment requires the selection of a psychoactive drug that is of pharmacological interest but not already reviewed in the course or the previous Rapid Review. The chosen drug must have at least three peer-reviewed articles published within the last five years. After choosing a drug, the student is required to prepare a three-page summary of the drug using the PSY630 Rapid Review Example paper as a guide. The summary should analyze and explain the pharmacological aspects of the drug, as noted above, to shed light on its therapeutic use and possible abuse process if there is no accepted therapeutic use. The paper must follow APA style with a title page, in-text citations, and a references page. Also, the paper must exhibit critical thinking, analyzing the chosen drug’s pharmacology and its relation to psychiatric disorders.

Objectives:
– To select a psychoactive drug of pharmacological interest and analyze its pharmacological aspects related to psychiatric disorders or the abuse process.
– To conduct research on the selected drug and summarize the information into a three-page report using the Rapid Review Example paper as a guide.
– To document all sources using APA style and format the paper and references page accordingly.

Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the Rapid Review assignment, students will be able to:
– Analyze and explain the pharmacological aspects of a psychoactive drug, including neurotransmitters affected, receptors, route of administration, half-life, doses, side effects, drug interactions, contraindications, and other important facets of the drug.
– Evaluate and describe the actions of a drug with regard to the abuse process if there is no accepted therapeutic use for the drug.
– Identify at least three peer-reviewed articles published within the last five years on a selected drug and summarize the information into a cohesive report.
– Use critical thinking skills to address the topic of the paper and synthesize information from various sources.
– Demonstrate proper formatting and documentation of sources using APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Solution 1: Analyzing the Pharmacology of Cocaine

Introduction:
Cocaine is a commonly used psychostimulant that is derived from the leaves of the coca plant. It is one of the most addictive and abused substances in the world. The drug is known for its ability to produce feelings of intense pleasure and euphoria, which is why it is often used recreationally.

Pharmacological Aspects:
Cocaine acts on a wide range of neurotransmitters in the brain, including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. It is a potent dopamine reuptake inhibitor, which means it prevents the reabsorption of dopamine in the brain, leading to an accumulation in the synapses. This leads to an elevation in mood, pleasure, and a sense of wellbeing.

The drug is most commonly administered through intranasal inhalation or injection. The half-life of cocaine is relatively short, between 30 to 90 minutes, depending on the route of administration. The effective dose of the drug varies depending on a number of factors, including the route of administration and the purity of the drug.

Side Effects:
Cocaine abuse can result in a range of negative side effects, including anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions. Long-term use of the drug can lead to a range of physical and psychological health problems, including heart attacks, seizures, and strokes.

Drug Interactions:
Cocaine can interact with a wide range of other drugs, including alcohol, opioids, and benzodiazepines. These interactions can increase the risk of overdose, as well as exacerbate the negative effects associated with cocaine use.

Solution 2: Analyzing the Pharmacology of Ketamine

Introduction:
Ketamine is an anesthetic drug that is commonly used in medical procedures. It is also used recreationally for its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects. The drug has gained attention in recent years for its potential therapeutic uses in treating depression and other psychiatric disorders.

Pharmacological Aspects:
Ketamine acts primarily on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the brain. It is a non-competitive antagonist at these receptors, which means it blocks them and prevents the action of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that is important for learning and memory.

The drug is most commonly administered through intravenous infusion or intramuscular injection. The half-life of ketamine is relatively short, between 2 to 3 hours, depending on the dose and route of administration. The effective dose of the drug varies depending on the medical condition being treated.

Side Effects:
Ketamine abuse can result in a range of negative side effects, including confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, and delusions. Long-term use of the drug can lead to a range of physical and psychological health problems, including bladder damage, respiratory depression, and memory impairment.

Drug Interactions:
Ketamine can interact with a range of other drugs, including alcohol, opioids, and benzodiazepines. These interactions can increase the risk of negative side effects and impair the effectiveness of the drug in treating psychiatric disorders.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. “Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry” by John A. Yagiela, Frank J. Dowd, and Bart Johnson
2. “Basic & Clinical Pharmacology” by Bertram G. Katzung and Anthony J. Trevor
3. “Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior: An Introduction to Psychopharmacology” by Adam Prus

Similar asked questions:

1. What are the pharmacological aspects of [specific drug] and how do they affect neurotransmitters, receptors, and other facets of the drug?
2. What are the common side effects and potential drug interactions of [specific drug]?
3. How does the route of administration affect the pharmacology of [specific drug]?
4. What are the contraindications for the therapeutic use of [specific drug]?
5. What are the potential issues associated with the abuse process of [specific drug]?

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