How do laws specific to a state affect disclosure and nondisclosure in medication error scenarios?

  

Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patients family.
Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state.
Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation.
Explain the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize medication errors.
Introduction and conclusion

AC is a 72-year-old male who is admitted to your ICU after suffering a massive stroke that has left him unresponsive and unable to communicate. He is currently on a ventilator. It was discovered that the stroke was the result of a medication error. His wife of 48 years is available along with their one adult daughter. The wife informs you that they dont have any advanced directives, but she is pretty sure her husband would not want to live like this. However, their daughter is adamant her dad would want to be kept alive in case there is any chance to come out of thi
ETHICAL AND LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF PRESCRIBING DRUGS
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:
Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patients family.
Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state. (Illinois state)
Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation.
Explain the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize medication errors.
Introduction and conclusion.

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SCENARIO
AC is a 72-year-old male who is admitted to your ICU after suffering a massive stroke that has left him unresponsive and unable to communicate. He is currently on a ventilator. It was discovered that the stroke was the result of a medication error. His wife of 48 years is available along with their one adult daughter. The wife informs you that they dont have any advanced directives, but she is pretty sure her husband would not want to live like this. However, their daughter is adamant her dad would want to be kept alive in case there is any chance to come out of this.

GRADING RUBRICS
Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and the patient’s family. = The response accurately and thoroughly explains in detail the ethical and legal implications of the scenario selected on all stakeholders involved. … The response includes accurate, clear, and detailed explanations as to how these implications affect the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and the patient’s family.

Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state. = An accurate, detailed, and clear description of strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario selected is provided. … The response includes specific, detailed, and accurate reference to state laws related to the scenario.

Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation. = The response accurately and thoroughly explains in detail at least two strategies that an advanced practice nurse would use to guide decision making in the scenario. … The response accurately and completely explains whether they would disclose the error, including an accurate, detailed, and clear justification for the explanation provided.

Explain the process of writing prescriptions including strategies to minimize medication errors. = The response provides an accurate, detailed, and thorough explanation of the process of writing prescriptions, including detailed strategies to minimize medication errors.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. = Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation. = Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing,margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. = Uses correct APA format with no errors. use and cite at least 4 sources for written assignments throughout the quarter.

REQUIRED READING AND REFERENCING
Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021).
Lehnes pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants(2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Chapter 1, Prescriptive Authority (pp. 13)
Chapter 2, Rational Drug Selection and Prescription Writing (pp. 47)
Chapter 3, Promoting Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy (pp. 812)
Chapter 4, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Interactions (pp. 1333)
Chapter 5, Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors (pp. 3442)
Chapter 6, Individual Variation in Drug Response (pp. 4345)
American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults.

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

Download Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

, 67(4), 674694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767

American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center.
This article is an update to the Beers Criteria, which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual’s kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults.
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2021).

CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

Links to an external site.
. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=1300

This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs.
Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.).

Mid-level practitioners authorization by stateLinks to an external site.
. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html

This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule.
Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017).

List of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designationsLinks to an external site.
. Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/error-prone-abbreviations-list

This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors.
Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017).

Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacistled educational intervention for nurse practitioner studentsLinks to an external site.
.
Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 29(5), 248254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446

The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacistled educational intervention on family nurse practitioner (FNP) students prescribing skills, perception of preparedness to prescribe, and perception of pharmacist as collaborator.

nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected, with specific reference to the relevant laws in the state of Illinois. = The paper discusses strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure in the selected scenario. The strategies are supported by references to the ethical and legal guidelines specific to the state of Illinois. The response includes a comprehensive discussion of how to balance the right of the patient and the family with the legal and ethical duties of healthcare providers.

As an advanced practice nurse, explain two strategies that you would use to guide your decision-making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error, and justify your explanation. = The paper outlines two strategies that an advanced practice nurse can use to guide decision-making in the given scenario. The response includes a detailed and well-supported explanation of the decision-making process, including the factors that would influence the decision on whether or not to disclose the error.

Explain the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize medication errors. Introduction and conclusion. = The paper explains the process of writing prescriptions and highlights strategies that can be used to minimize medication errors. The explanation is supported by relevant evidence-based research and includes a discussion of the role of healthcare providers in ensuring medication safety. The paper concludes with a summary of the key points covered in the paper.

Objectives:
– To understand the ethical and legal implications of prescribing drugs in a critical care scenario
– To identify the stakeholders involved in the scenario and how the situation affects them
– To describe strategies for disclosure and nondisclosure in the scenario
– To explain the process of writing prescriptions and strategies to minimize medication errors

Learning Outcomes:
– Understand the ethical and legal implications of medication errors in critical care situations on prescribers, pharmacists, patients, and their families.
– Identify laws specific to the state (Illinois) and their impact on prescribing drugs in critical care scenarios.
– Describe strategies for disclosure and nondisclosure for healthcare providers involved in the scenario.
– Develop two strategies as an advanced practice nurse to guide decision-making in the scenario, including whether to disclose an error.
– Understand the process of writing prescriptions and develop strategies to minimize medication errors.

Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs:
The response should clearly explain the ethical and legal implications of the medication error on all stakeholders involved, including the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and their family. The response should also reference laws specific to the state (Illinois) and how they impact prescribing drugs in critical care scenarios.

Strategies to Address Disclosure and Nondisclosure:
The response should describe strategies for disclosure and nondisclosure in the scenario and how they impact the stakeholders involved. These strategies should be based on laws specific to the state of Illinois and ethical considerations for healthcare providers.

Decision-Making Strategies:
The response should develop two strategies that an advanced practice nurse would use to guide their decision-making in the scenario, including whether to disclose an error. The justification for these strategies should be based on ethical and legal considerations for healthcare providers.

Process of Writing Prescriptions:
The response should explain the process of writing prescriptions and strategies to minimize medication errors. This should include best practices for documentation, communication, and medication reconciliation to promote patient safety.

Introduction and Conclusion:
The paper should include an introduction and conclusion that provide a clear and concise summary of the topics covered and the learning outcomes achieved. The conclusion should also include a reflection on the importance of understanding ethics and laws related to prescribing drugs in critical care scenarios to promote patient safety and improve healthcare outcomes.

nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state. (Illinois state)

Solution 1: Taking into account the ethical and legal implications of the scenario mentioned above, one viable solution is for the hospital staff to have a discussion with the patient’s family about the different options available for life-sustaining treatment. The discussion should revolve around the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. The healthcare team should disclose all the information available about the patient’s condition, including the medication error that resulted in the stroke. In accordance with Illinois’ Uniform Health-Care Decisions Act (UHCDA), the healthcare team should respect the wife’s autonomy as the primary surrogate decision-maker, as long as she acts in good faith and in accordance with the patient’s wishes. If the patient’s wishes are not known, the surrogate decision-maker must consider what the patient would have wanted in the current circumstances. On the other hand, the ethically challenging aspect arises from the daughter’s adamant stance to keep the father alive. However, the healthcare team needs to make sure that all members of the family understand the gravity of the situation, and that the patient’s best interests are of paramount importance. In case of a disagreement, the healthcare team can seek legal intervention to act in the patient’s best interests.

Solution 2: Another possible solution is to form an Ethics Committee involving the healthcare team, patients, families, and other relevant stakeholders. The Ethics Committee can provide a multi-disciplinary approach, which considers all the relevant ethical, moral, and legal implications of the situation. The healthcare team can consult with the Ethics Committee for guidance and support in making decisions about the treatment options. The Ethics Committee can help identify and address the information gaps and provide clear communication strategies for the family. Following Illinois laws, the Ethics Committee can act as a mediator and involve the legal system to facilitate conflict resolution if necessary.

Strategies to Address Disclosure and Nondisclosure:
Illinois law requires healthcare providers to obtain informed consent before any medical treatment or procedure, except in emergency situations. Informing the patient or surrogate decision-maker of the medical error and its cause is essential. The prescriber and pharmacist have a moral and legal duty to disclose the error and its causes. In cases where the patient’s family has difficulty accepting the disclosure of medical errors, professional and compassionate communication can help. Illinois law provides for good faith disclosure of medical errors and protections against claims of defamation, slander, or libel by the providers.

Strategies to Guide Decision-making as an Advanced Practice Nurse:
As an Advanced Practice Nurse, one of the crucial strategies for guiding decision-making would be to prioritize the patient’s wishes and interests. Maintaining ethical principles and values such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice in decision-making. Communication is key, and the nurse should focus on developing a comprehensive understanding of the patient and family’s wishes as well as providing comprehensive information regarding the patient’s condition and treatment options. In deciding whether to disclose an error, the governing nursing laws and regulations and hospital policies must be followed. The nurse should also consult with other healthcare providers and seek guidance from the Ethics Committee.

Minimizing Medication Errors:
To minimize medication errors, healthcare providers must follow a standard process of prescribing, dispensing, and administering medications. The prescription should include detailed and accurate information about the medication, dosage, and administration. The prescriber should review the patient’s medication history and potential drug interactions before prescribing any medication. At the dispensing stage, the pharmacist should verify the prescription and check for any allergies or contraindications for the medication. Finally, the administering nurse must ensure that the medication is given in the correct dosage, route, and time. Regular audits of the medication administration process can also help identify potential errors and improve medication safety.

nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state. = The response provides strategies for both disclosure and nondisclosure in the selected scenario, clearly referencing applicable state laws. The response should provide specific examples of how each strategy could be implemented effectively and ethically.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. “Healthcare Ethics and Law” by Donna K. Hammaker and Thomas M. Knadig
2. “Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making” by Joy Wingfield and Joshua N. Rahe
3. “The Hippocratic Oath and the Ethics of Medicine” by Steven H. Miles

Similar Asked Questions:

1. What are the ethical and legal implications of medication errors in healthcare?
2. How should advanced practice nurses approach disclosure and nondisclosure in medical errors?
3. What are strategies healthcare providers can use to minimize medication errors?
4. How does the state law affect the disclosure of medical errors?
5. How can the ethical principles of autonomy and beneficence apply to the scenario of an unresponsive patient with conflicting wishes from family members?

Explanation of Ethical and Legal Implications:

In this scenario, all stakeholders, including the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family, are impacted by the medication error. The prescriber may face legal liability if negligence is found in prescribing the wrong medication. The pharmacist may also face legal consequences and may be held liable for dispensing an incorrect medication. The patient and their family are impacted due to the patient’s current condition resulting from the medication error.

Strategies for Disclosure and Nondisclosure:

Strategies for disclosure and nondisclosure must be assessed in a case-by-case basis, depending on the specific state laws. In this case, disclosing the medication error to the patient’s family is necessary, but the level of detail provided is dependent on the state laws. It is important to preserve patient confidentiality and make sure that the patient’s wishes and their family’s wishes are respected.

Guiding Decision Making:

Two strategies for guiding decision making in the scenario could include involving a healthcare ethics committee to provide a professional and unbiased assessment of the situation and weighing the ethical principles of autonomy and beneficence. The decision whether to disclose the error should be based on maintaining patient autonomy and ensuring patient beneficence.

Process of Writing Prescriptions:

The process of prescribing medications involves assessing patient history and medications, analyzing drug interactions, selecting an appropriate medication and dose, and providing clear instructions for administration. To minimize medication errors, healthcare providers should use electronic prescribing systems, utilize error checklists, carefully review medications, and ensure communication with other healthcare providers involved in the patient’s care.

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