How can functional and technical requirements be identified and documented in the Requirements Specification document?

  

Stage 2: Requirements Specification

Before you begin this assignment, be sure you have read the Case Study and all assignments for this class, especially Stage 4: Final System Report. The feedback you received on your Stage 1 assignment should be reviewed and used as you proceed with Stage 2.

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Purpose of this Assignment

This assignment gives you the opportunity to specify clear and concise requirements, including the use of data and process models, for a system that enables a productive change in a way the business is conducted. This assignment specifically addresses the following course outcomes to enable you to:

apply a systematic approach to translate requirements into an executable systems design
effectively communicate with stakeholders to determine, manage, and document business requirements throughout the SDLC
perform modeling to assist with analysis and decision making

Assignment

The results of your systems analysis and design work in this class will be documented in a Final System Report. The purpose of the Report is to inform management of your system proposal and gain approval to proceed with the project. The Report will be developed and submitted in stages, which will be compiled at the end of class into the Final System Report. Review the outline of the Final System Report in the Stage 4 Assignment description. Note that it contains the analysis of the problem(s) and requirements, and proposes what kind of a system solution is needed. It does not propose a specific solution, but it does recommend why and how the organization should acquire the solution.

Following the Preliminary Investigation Report (Stage 1 assignment), the next step is to identify the requirements for a system, documenting them in the Requirements Specification document. The purpose of the Requirements Specification is to clearly define what the proposed system will do in non-technical user-oriented language. It should identify what data is entered into the system, what output is required, what processes the system should perform, what protections and controls are needed, what performance is expected, and what the business continuity needs are. In order to clearly express the requirements, data and process models are used to communicate how the system should work.

All of the information you need to complete the projects in this class is not provided in the case study. In the discussion area of the classroom, there is a discussion titled ”
Case Study Interview Questions” where you can pose questions about the case study, as if you were interviewing the people in the case study organization. Any information that you need that is not included in the case study should be asked about in this discussion. Responses from the faculty member on behalf of the case study organization will be available for everyone in the class.

Use the information provided in the case study and the Case Study Interview Questions discussion to create a checklist of functional and technical requirements and the data and process models listed below. Using the format
and resources below,
list three requirements for
each
of the areas shown in I and II. Then, create two diagrams to illustrate the scope of the system: the
context diagram and the
use case diagram. Then, create the
data flow diagram to illustrate the flow of the inputs and outputs listed as functional requirements in section I. You should then select a
process or process step (from those listed in section I.b processing requirements)
that has some decision associated with it to create the three process models listed below. The same process/process step will be used for all three of the process models; they are just different ways to represent the process and the decision involved. Approximate lengths for each section are provided as a guideline; be sure to provide all pertinent information. References in brackets are to the two e-textbooks (by authors Jawahar and Conger) used in this class and the page on which the explanatory information begins.
Use the examples listed in the brackets to develop your diagrams. [Note: Every diagram/model needs to be customized for the course scenario. Simply copying the example diagram(s) with little or no customization will result in a zero for that diagram.] There are several different methodologies using different symbols, but your diagrams will be graded for compliance with the examples listed. You are required to use the symbols and diagramming methods illustrated in the examples, and follow any rules for the diagram in the sources listed with each diagram.

Requirements Specification

Background: First, provide a brief description of your proposed system to establish the context for the Requirements Specification.

I. Functional Requirements. The input-processing-output requirements must relate to each other. Start with three outputs you expect from the system, then determine what inputs are needed to create each of those outputs, and finally specify what processing needs to occur for each input to create the output. At least one of your processing requirements must have a decision associated with it so it can be used for the Process Models below. You should have a complete statement for each requirement, and each requirement should be numbered within the category. (introductory paragraph and list of 9 inter-related requirement statements) [Jawahar, p. 95 and the Week 3 Content, including reading on IEEE Software Requirements Specifications] [another source of ideas and concepts is:

Sample Project Requirements Document – Library Blog from ALATechSource

]

a. Output requirements. List three different reports, results of a calculation, or other outputs.
i. Output #1
ii. Output #2
iii. Output #3
b. Input requirements.
i. List the main data elements required to create output #1
ii. List the main data elements required to create output #2
iii. List the main data elements required to create output #3
c. Processing requirements (at least one must have a decision associated with it)
i. Processing required to create Output #1
ii. Processing required to create Output #2
iii. Processing required to create Output #3
II. Technical Requirements (introductory paragraph and 3 requirement statements listed for each area below) [Jawahar, p. 95]
a. Security requirements
b. System control requirements
c. Performance requirements
d. Business continuity requirements (backup, restart, recovery)
III. System Scope Diagrams (introductory/explanatory paragraph and 2 diagrams) [a good explanation and example is at
http://www.jamasoftware.com/blog/defining-project-scope-context-use-case-diagrams/]

a. Context Diagram [explanation in Conger, p.228; use example in Conger, p.229. Figure 7.2]
b. Use Case Diagram [use example in weblink above]
IV. Data Flow Diagram (introductory/explanatory paragraph and diagram) [Week 4 Content module and weblinks]
a. Data Flow Diagram [explanation in Conger, p.228; use example in Conger, p.230, Figure 7.3; use the tips located in the assignment folder (DFD_Tips.pdf)]
V. Process Models (introductory/explanatory paragraph and 3 items below) [Week 4 Systems Analysis Course Module]
a. Structured English [use example in Systems Analysis Course Module, Process Description Tools]
b. Decision Table [use example in Systems Analysis Course Module, Process Description Tools]
c. Decision Tree [use example in Systems Analysis Course Module, Process Description Tools]

Submitting Your Assignment

Submit your document via your Assignment Folder as Microsoft Word document, or a document that can be ready using MS Word, with your last name included in the filename. Use the Grading Rubric below to be sure you have covered all aspects of the assignment.

GRADING RUBRIC:

Criteria

90-100%

Far Above Standards

80-89%

Above Standards

70-79%

Meets Standards

60-69%

Below Standards

< 60% Well Below Standards Possible Points Functional Requirements 16-18 Points Three requirements for input, output and processing are clearly stated and correctly inter-related; are logically derived from the Case Study, and demonstrate a sophisticated level of writing. 14-15 Points Three requirements for input, output and processing are clearly stated and correctly inter-related; are logically derived from the Case Study, and demonstrate a clear understanding of the course concepts. 12-13 Points Three requirements for input, output and processing are stated and are inter-related; and are derived from the Case Study. 10-11 Points May present fewer than three requirements for input, output and processing, or they may not be inter-related; and/or may not be derived from the Case Study. 0-9 Points Functional requirements are not included, or demonstrate little effort. 18 Technical Requirements 11-12 Points Three requirements each for security, system control, performance, and business continuity are clearly stated and are logically derived from the Case Study, and demonstrate a sophisticated level of writing. 9-10 Points Three requirements each for security, system control, performance, and business continuity are clearly stated and are logically derived from the Case Study, and demonstrate effective writing. 8 Points Three requirements each for security, system control, performance, and business continuity are provided and are appropriate to the Case Study. 7 Points Fewer than three requirements each for security, control, performance and business continuity may be provided, and/or they may not be appropriate to the Case Study. 0-6 Points Functional requirements are not provided, or little effort is demonstrated. 12 System Scope Diagrams 9-10 Points Context diagram and Use Case diagram are correctly constructed, logical, appropriate to the Case Study and demonstrate a sophisticated level of analysis. 8 Points Context diagram and Use Case diagram are correctly constructed, logical, appropriate to the Case Study and demonstrate accurate analysis. 7 Points Context diagram and Use Case diagram are provided, and are appropriate to the Case Study. 6 Points Both Context and Use Case diagrams may not be provided, and/or may not be appropriate to the Case Study. 0-5 Points Both Context and Use Case diagrams are not provided, or little effort is demonstrated. 10 Data Flow Diagram 9-10 Points Data Flow Diagram is correctly constructed, logical, appropriate to the Case Study and demonstrate a sophisticated level of analysis. 8 Points Data Flow Diagram is correctly constructed, logical, appropriate to the Case Study and demonstrate accurate analysis. 7 Points Data Flow Diagram is provided, and are appropriate to the Case Study. 6 Points Data Flow Diagram may not be correctly contructed, and/or may not be appropriate to the Case Study. 0-5 Points Data Flow Diagram is not provided, or little effort is demonstrated. 10 Process Models 36-40 Points All three process models structured English, decision table, and decision tree are correctly constructed, logical, appropriate to the Case Study and demonstrate a sophisticated level of analysis. All three models describe the same decision process. 32-35 Points All three process models structured English, decision table, and decision tree are correctly constructed, logical, appropriate to the Case Study and demonstrate accurate analysis. All three models describe the same decision process. 28-31 Points All three process models structured English, decision table, and decision tree are provided, and are appropriate to the Case Study. All three models describe the same decision process. 24-27 Points All three process models may not be provided, may not describe the same decision process, and/or may not be appropriate to the Case Study. 0-23 Points The three process models are not provided, or little effort is demonstrated. 40 Format 9-10 Points Submission reflects effective organization and sophisticated writing; follows instructions provided; uses correct structure, grammar, and spelling; presented in a professional format; any references used are appropriately incorporated and cited using APA style. 8 Points Submission reflects effective organization and clear writing; follows instructions provided; uses correct structure, grammar, and spelling; presented in a professional format; any references used are appropriately incorporated and cited using APA style. 7 Points Submission is adequate, is somewhat organized, follows instructions provided;contains minimal grammar and/or spelling errors; and follows APA style for any references and citations. 6 Points Submission is not well organized, and/or does not follow instructions provided; and/or contains grammar and/or spelling errors; and/or does not follow APA style for any references and citations. May demonstrate inadequate level of writing. 0-5 Points Document is extremely poorly written and does not convey the information. 10 TOTAL Points Possible 100 Stage 2: Requirements Specification 5 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Tips Processes: Verbs Dataflows: Nouns Data Stores: Nouns External Entities: Nouns 1) Processs input & output are different 2) Each data store should have at least one data flow in and one data flow out 3) Each process should have at least one data flow in and one data flow out 4) All inputs and outputs should be labeled 5) Processes should have an identifier (Ex., 1.0, 2.0, etc.) Process Process Process-to-Process Process Process Process-to-Process Process-to-External Entity Process External Entity Process-to-External Entity Process External Entity Data Store Process-to-Data Store Process Data Store Process-to-Data Store Process External Entity-to-External Entity External Entity External Entity External Entity-to-External Entity External Entity External Entity Data Store Data Store-to-Data Store Data StoreData Store Data Store-to-Data Store Data Store External Entity-to-Data StoreExternal Entity-to-Data Store External Entity Data Store External Entity Data Store External Entity Data Store External Entity-to-Data Store External Entity Data StoreProcess Process Process-to-Process Process-to-External Entity Process External Entity Data Store Process-to-Data Store Process External Entity-to-External Entity External Entity External Entity Data Store Data Store-to-Data Store Data Store External Entity-to-Data Store External Entity Data Store DFD_Rules.vsdx Top Process Introduction: In software development, it is essential to have a clear understanding of the requirements for a system before developing an executable solution. Systems requirements provide a roadmap for the development team to create a system that satisfies the needs of a business. The purpose of this assignment is to specify clear and concise requirements, including the use of data and process models that enable productive change in the way a business operates. Description: Stage 2 of the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) involves defining the requirements of a system to be developed, as indicated in the Stage 1 assignment feedback. This assignment requires students to develop a Requirements Specification document that highlights what a proposed system will do, in non-technical, user-oriented language. It should clearly explain the data that is entered into the system, the output required, the process flow of the system, as well as the performance and business continuity needs. This assignment offers students the opportunity to apply a systematic approach to translate requirements into an executable system design, effectively communicate the requirements with stakeholders throughout the SDLC, and perform modeling to assist with analysis and decision-making. To complete this assignment, students are required to use the information provided in the case study and a discussion area in the classroom titled "Case Study Interview Questions" to create a checklist of functional and technical requirements, along with data and process models. The resulting document will be included in the Final System Report, which will inform management of the system proposal and gain approval to proceed with the project. Heading: Objectives Objectives of the Stage 2: Requirements Specification Assignment are: 1. To specify clear and concise requirements for a system that enables a productive change in a way the business is conducted. 2. To develop an understanding of the use of data and process models in modeling to assist with analysis and decision making. 3. To enable students to apply a systematic approach to translate requirements into an executable systems design. Heading: Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of the Stage 2: Requirements Specification Assignment, students will be able to: 1. Effectively communicate with stakeholders to determine, manage, and document business requirements throughout the SDLC. 2. Perform modeling to assist with analysis and decision making. 3. Apply a systematic approach to translate requirements into an executable systems design. Heading: Assignment Requirements The Stage 2: Requirements Specification Assignment requires students to: 1. Identify the requirements for a system, documenting them in the Requirements Specification document. 2. Develop a clear understanding of what data is entered into the system, what output is required, what processes the system should perform, what protections and controls are needed, what performance is expected, and what the business continuity needs are. 3. Create a checklist of functional and technical requirements and the data and process models listed in the assignment. Heading: Requirements Specifications The Requirements Specification document should contain: 1. A clear and concise definition of what the proposed system will do in non-technical user-oriented language. 2. Identification of what data is entered into the system, what output is required, what processes the system should perform, what protections and controls are needed, what performance is expected, and what the business continuity needs are. 3. Use of data and process models to communicate how the system should work. Heading: Use of Case Study Students should use the case study provided and the Case Study Interview Questions discussion to: 1. Create a checklist of functional and technical requirements and the data and process models listed in the assignment. 2. Pose questions about the case study, as if they were interviewing the people in the case study organization. 3. Ask for any information that they need that is not included in the case study. the functional and technical requirements listed in the checklist and create two possible solutions for the system proposal. Solution 1: Functional Requirements: 1. Data Input and Output: The system must be able to input data and generate output in real-time to ensure operational efficiency. 2. Process Automation: The system should automate the company's business processes to eliminate manual procedures. 3. Business Continuity: The system should have the capability of storing backup data to ensure business continuity. Technical Requirements: 1. Security: The system must be designed to prevent unauthorized access and should have robust data encryption to prevent data breaches. 2. Scalability: The system should be designed with scalability in mind to handle a growing business. 3. Interoperability: The system should integrate with other existing systems used within the company. Solution 2: Functional Requirements: 1. User-Friendly Interface: The system should have a user-friendly interface that is easy to navigate for all users. 2. Reporting and Analytics: The system should be able to generate reports and provide comprehensive analytics to facilitate business decision making. 3. Customization: The system should provide customization options to meet the unique needs of the business. Technical Requirements: 1. Compatibility: The system should be compatible with existing hardware and software to avoid additional costs for the company. 2. Reliability: The system should be highly reliable to minimize downtime and disruptions in business operations. 3. Performance: The system should be designed for optimal performance to ensure efficient and timely data processing. Suggested Resources/Books: - "Business Analysis Techniques: 72 Essential Tools for Success" by James Cadle, Debra Paul, and Paul Turner - "Requirements Engineering: From System Goals to UML Models to Software Specifications" by Axel van Lamsweerde - "Essential Scrum: A Practical Guide to the Most Popular Agile Process" by Kenny Rubin Similar Asked Questions: 1. What is the purpose of a Requirements Specification and how is it different from other system documents? 2. What types of information should be included in a Requirements Specification? 3. How can data and process models assist with requirements analysis and decision making? 4. What are some common methodologies or techniques used for gathering requirements? 5. What is the significance of effectively communicating with stakeholders during the requirements gathering process?

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