How can a Java program be written to have a method named atomic()?

  

Write a Java program (non-GUI preferred) that has a method named atomic().Demonstrate in the program how two threads can, sometimes, invoke atomic() concurrently.Create a second version of the program in which the two threads cannot invoke atomic concurrently.Submit both programs using the Assignment Files tab above.To assist, I have included a demo file of a multi-thread program. Remember that the ideal program demonstrates threading in action.—– The demo program file has been attached to this post. Please write only original functional Java code for this assignment and upload by the time due.

Introduction:

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Multi-threading is a significant feature in Java programming that allows two or more threads to run concurrently within a single program. One of the most common issues when working with multi-threaded programs is thread synchronization. Thread synchronization is necessary when multiple threads access the same shared resource and need to avoid conflicts or data inconsistency.

Description:

In this assignment, you will need to write a Java program that demonstrates thread synchronization using the “atomic” method. The program should have a class with a method named “atomic()” that can be accessed by multiple threads. The objective is to show how two threads can sometimes invoke the “atomic” method concurrently, leading to data inconsistency.

For the second version of the program, you will need to modify the original program to ensure that the two threads cannot invoke the “atomic” method concurrently. This version of the program should demonstrate how thread synchronization can be achieved using techniques like locks or synchronized blocks to prevent data inconsistency.

Through this assignment, you will gain a better understanding of the challenges and solutions surrounding multi-threaded programming. Remember to submit both the original and modified program by the deadline using the Assignment Files tab above.

Objectives:
– To teach students how to create a Java program that involves multi-threading
– To help students understand the concept of atomicity in Java programming
– To provide an opportunity for students to practice creating Java programs that involve multithreading and atomicity

Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
– Create a Java program that involves multi-threading
– Demonstrate the concept of atomicity in Java programming
– Understand how to prevent concurrent invocation of a method by using locks/synchronization
– Submit a functional Java program that involves multi-threading and atomicity

Heading 1: Introduction
– Explain the purpose of the lesson
– Give an overview of the lesson objectives and learning outcomes
– Discuss the importance of multi-threading and atomicity in Java programming

Heading 2: Creating a Java Program That Involves Multi-Threading
– Discuss the basics of multi-threading in Java
– Demonstrate how to create a Java program that involves multi-threading
– Explain how to implement synchronization in Java to prevent concurrent access to shared resources

Heading 3: Demonstrating Atomicity in Java Programming
– Define atomicity in Java programming
– Demonstrate how to create a Java program that involves atomicity (using the provided atomic() method)
– Show how to use Atomic operations in multi-threading to ensure atomicity

Heading 4: Preventing Concurrent Invocation of a Method
– Explain the problems associated with concurrent invocation of a method in Java
– Demonstrate how to use locks or synchronization to prevent concurrent invocation of a method in Java

Heading 5: Submission of the Java Programs
– Provide instructions on how to submit the two Java programs created in the lesson
– Explain the importance of submitting functional programs that meet the criteria set out in the instructions.

Solution 1:

To solve the issue of concurrent invocation of the atomic() method, we can use the synchronized keyword to ensure that only one thread can access the method at a time. The synchronized keyword works by creating a lock object that only one thread can hold at a time. When a thread holds the lock object, all other threads that try to access the synchronized method will be blocked until the lock is released.

Here is the modified code for the atomic() method using the synchronized keyword:

“`
public synchronized void atomic() {
// code to be executed atomically
}
“`

Solution 2:

Another way to solve the concurrent invocation issue of the atomic() method is by using the AtomicInteger class provided by Java. The atomic integer class provides several methods that guarantee atomicity when performing operations on integers.

Here is the modified code for the atomic() method using the AtomicInteger class:

“`
public class AtomicCounter {
private AtomicInteger count = new AtomicInteger(0);

public void atomic() {
int currentValue = count.incrementAndGet();
// code to be executed atomically
}
}
“`

In this solution, we create an instance of the AtomicInteger class, which we use to increment the count variable atomically. The incrementAndGet() method increments the value of the count variable and returns the new value atomically. Therefore, we can be sure that no two threads can increment the count variable at the same time, hence the execution of the atomic() method is guaranteed to be atomic.

Suggested Resources/Books:
1. Java Concurrency in Practice by Brian Goetz, Tim Peierls, Joshua Bloch, Joseph Bowbeer, David Holmes, Doug Lea
2. Concurrent Programming in Java: Design Principles and Pattern (2nd edition) by Douglas Lea

Similar Asked Questions:
1. How to implement synchronization in Java?
2. What are the differences between synchronized methods and blocks in Java?
3. How to avoid race conditions in Java?
4. How to implement thread safety in Java?
5. How to use locks in Java for synchronization?

Java Program with Concurrent Invocation of atomic() Method:

“`java
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;

public class AtomicDemo {
static AtomicInteger counter = new AtomicInteger(0);

public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
Thread t1 = new Thread(() -> {
for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { atomic(); } }); Thread t2 = new Thread(() -> {
for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { atomic(); } }); t1.start(); t2.start(); t1.join(); t2.join(); System.out.println("Counter: " + counter.get()); } public static synchronized void atomic() { counter.incrementAndGet(); System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " : " + counter.get()); } } ``` Java Program with Non-Concurrent Invocation of atomic() Method: ```java import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger; public class AtomicDemo { static AtomicInteger counter = new AtomicInteger(0); public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException { Object lock = new Object(); Thread t1 = new Thread(() -> {
for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { synchronized(lock) { atomic(); } } }); Thread t2 = new Thread(() -> {
for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++) { synchronized(lock) { atomic(); } } }); t1.start(); t2.start(); t1.join(); t2.join(); System.out.println("Counter: " + counter.get()); } public static void atomic() { counter.incrementAndGet(); System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + " : " + counter.get()); } } ```

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