Do girls from single parent families have lower achievement in school than boys?

  

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Academic Performance and Social Behavior
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ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

The Effect of Family Structure and Parental Support on Academic Performance and Social Behavior
Anella Jeanine Garness

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Saint Leo University

Abstract

The comparison of single parent and two parent families shows that family structure has a profound effect on a students academic performance and social interaction in the school setting (Featherstone, Cundick & Jensen, 1992). Research has shown that students brought up in single parent families, despite that parents sex, tend to perform at a lower academic level and are also more susceptible to becoming juvenile delinquents. Conversely, students from a traditional family structure, consisting of both a mother and father, have a propensity to perform better in school in both academics and social interaction (Weitoft, Hjern & Rosn, 2004; Featherstone, Cundick & Jensen, 1992).

Keywords: single parent, two parent, academics, social interaction

The Effect of Family Structure and Parental Support on Academic Performance and Social Behavior
Divorce rates are escalating leaving an increasing number of single parent families. Unfortunately, this change may be adversely affecting the children in these households in aspects of academic performance and overall school behavior. Research shows that in comparison with intact families, consisting of both parents, students from lone parent families tend to perform at a lower academic level (Weitoft, Hjern & Rosn, 2004; Featherstone, Cundick & Jensen, 1992). This is a major problem since academic accomplishment has been correlated to a more successful future and lifestyle (Weitoft et al., 2004).

Research has emphasized that students of nuclear families had twice as high end of year grades and grade point averages than students of single parent families (Weitoft et al., 2004; Featherstone et al., 1992). In a ranking scheme constructed based on the outcome of desirable behavior by Featherstone et al. (1992), students from intact families ranked first on the scale with highest grade point averages, more occurrences of punctuality, and least number of absences and detentions. Reconstructed families ranked next on the scale, finally followed by students from single parent families, who had the lowest grade point averages and highest occurrences of absences, detentions and tardiness. In addition, students from intact families were viewed more positively by teachers and had less negative, undesirable behavior ratings in comparison to students from one parent families (Featherstone et al., 1992).

Furthermore, students from intact families were more likely to attain education past the compulsory curriculum in relation to students of single parent families (Weitoft et al., 2004). Also, Weitoft et al (2004) found that single parent families had a more profound effect on girls in comparison to boys since girls from lone parent families were less likely to complete compulsory education. Finally, Weitoft et al. (2004) results showed that the educational background of parents affected students performance since students with highly educated single parents performed at the same level as students with two parents of minimal education. However, highly educated single parents also tend to give less support to their children since they have high career aspirations for themselves.

Researchers have proposed various reasons for the lower academic performance of students from single parent families. Primarily, Boyce & Rose (2001) believed that economic resources play an influential role since men have higher wages than women and most children of lone parent families live with their mother. In addition, students from single parent families due to economic constraints tend to live in lower class neighborhoods and thus, students are not motivated academically by their environment outside of school (Weitoft et al., 2004). Furthermore, academic performance is positively correlated with parental support and monitoring. Students from single parent families, tend to report their parents as less supportive since lone parents have multiple roles to accomplish in the household. As a result, these students are at higher risk for academic failure due to lack of parental support (Boyce & Rose, 2001).

Despite the aforementioned research demonstrating that family structure affects school performance, other researchers have found a few discrepancies. For example, Kurdek et al.s (1988) research determined that regardless of family structure, students performed equivalently on verbal tests and also had the same number of detentions and occurrences of tardiness. Furthermore, in single mother families, the absence of a paternal figure, did not affect academic and school performance (Kurdek & Sinclair, 1988). In addition, Boyce and Roses (2001) research revealed that irrespective of family structure, students who perceived their parents as more supportive performed better academically.

Purpose of Proposed Study

Extensive research exploring the effects of family structure on academic performance has emphasized that students from single parent families perform at a lower academic level and also are more prone to negative behavior in school when compared to students from intact families. These researchers have proposed a socioeconomic cause for these academic differences but have not taken into effect the role of parental support. Future research should evaluate the hypothesized socioeconomic causes to see if parental support is also a deciding factor of academic performance. Children of single parent families will perceive their parent as less supportive when compared to children of two parent families. It is hypothesized that students who receive more parental support will perform better, regardless of family structure and economic standing. Furthermore, researchers should focus on childrens behavior outside the school environment. It is hypothesized that students from single parent families will have more occurrences of delinquent behaviors and undesirable activities such as drug and alcohol abuse, in comparison to persons from intact families. This aspect of research is beneficial because it could potentially show the relationship between family structure and juvenile delinquent behavior.

Method

Participants

The participants for the study will be recruited from a private, liberal arts university located in Western Florida. The sample will be comprised of full-time (12 or more credit hours) psychology students. The total sample size will be 150 participants. All participants will be over the age of eighteen and of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds so as to be representative of the university campus. Psychology professors may provide a small extra credit incentive, which participants will receive regardless of completion of the study. Furthermore, participants are able to decline from completing the study at any time.

Materials and Procedure

Participants will receive a link to an electronic survey containing: (1) an informed consent form, (2) a demographics sheet, (3) a parental support measure, (5) a delinquent behavior measure, (6) a drug use measure, (7) an alcohol use measure, and (7) a deviance measure.

The informed consent form (Appendix A) used will fully inform the participants of the risks and/or benefits associated with participation in the survey. Furthermore, this form will make participants aware that they are able to withdraw from the study at any time, without penalty.

The demographics sheet (Appendix B) will contain items questioning the participants sex, age, ethnic or racial background, family structure and current and past academic performance.

Boyd and Higgins (2006) Parent Support Measure is an 18-item Likert-type scale measuring the participants perceived support of their parent(s). The scale measures both emotional support and instrumental support. The internal consistency reliability for emotional and instrumental support is 0.85 and 0.72 respectively (Boyd & Higgins, 2006). This measure may be found in Appendix C.
The Multisite Violence Prevention Projects (2004) 8-item Problem Behavior Frequency Scale measures the participants participation in theft, cheating and property damage. The internal consistency reliability of the delinquent behavior scale is 0.76. This measure is in Appendix D.
The measure of deviance (Appendix E) used will be Boyd and Higgins (2006) 16-item scale measuring the participants cheating, drinking, smoking, and violent behaviors. The internal consistency reliability of this deviance measure is 0.81 (Boyd & Higgins, 2006)

Two measures of drug and alcohol use will be used. The first measure of drug and alcohol behavior (Appendix F) used will be Bosworth and Espalages (1995) 12-item, Teen Conflict Scale, measuring the participants initial use of drugs and alcohol as well as their drug and alcohol behavior over the past month. The internal consistency reliability of this scale is 0.83. The final scale (Appendix G) measuring the participants drinking and smoking behavior will be Engs (2007) Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ). The SAQ has an internal consistency reliability of 0.84.

Results

Descriptive Analyses including means, standard deviations and frequencies will be calculated.
Pearsons
r correlation will be calculated so as to determine the relationship between parental support and academic performance; parental support and drug and alcohol use; parental support and delinquent and deviant behavior; family structure and academic performance, family structure and drug and alcohol use; family structure and delinquent and deviant behavior; and parental support and family structure. It is expected for a strong, positive relationship to exist between parental support and family structure. Also, a strong positive relationship will exist between parental support and academic performance; while a strong, negative relationship will exist between parental support and drug and alcohol use, and parental support and delinquent and deviant behavior.

A simultaneous regression analysis will be calculated to examine how predictive family structure, parental support and gender are of academic performance, drug and alcohol use and delinquent and deviant behavior. It is expected that family structure and parental support will be significant predictors of academic performance (
M= ___,
SD= ___,
= ___,
p= ___), drug and alcohol use (
M= ___,
SD= ___,
= ___,
p= ___) and delinquent and deviant behavior (
M= ___,
SD= ___,
= ___,
p= ___); while gender will be a significant predictor of drug and alcohol use and delinquent and deviant behavior (
M= ___,
SD= ___,
= ___,
p= ___). Gender will not be a significant predictor of academic performance (
M= ___,
SD= ___,
= ___,
p= ___).

To determine if there is a significant difference between participants from single parent families and two parent families in academic performance, drug and alcohol use and delinquent and deviant behavior, two-tailed, independent sample t-tests will be calculated. Table 3 shows the expected results of the independent sample t-tests. A significant difference is expected between the scores of participants from single parent families and two parent families for academic performance (
t(
df)= ___,
p= ___), drug and alcohol use (
t(
df)= ___,
p= ___), and delinquent and deviant behavior (
t(
df)= ___,
p= ___). Two tailed, independent sample t-tests will be calculated so as to determine if there is a significant difference in scores in academic performance, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and deviant behavior between participants with more supportive parent(s) and participants with less supportive parent(s). A significant difference is expected between participants of less supportive parent(s) (
M= ___,
SD= ___), and more supportive parent(s) (
M= ___,
SD= ___) in academic performance (
t(
df)= ___,
p= ___), drug and alcohol use (
t(
df)= ___,
p= ___), and delinquent and deviant behavior (
t(
df)= ___,
p= ___).

Discussion

The purpose of this study will be to determine if family structure and parental support significantly affects academic performance and social behaviors such as drug and alcohol use and delinquent and deviant behavior.

Possible Outcome #1: Persons raised in single parent families perceive their parents as less supportive in comparison to persons from two parent families. The proposed reason for this result is that single parents have multiple roles (household, financial, educational, motivational, and emotional) to balance without the help of a partner.

Possible Outcome # 2: Persons from both family structures will perform better academically, will use less drugs and alcohol and exhibit less delinquent and deviant behavior, if their parent or parents are more supportive. This result will emphasize that it is in fact parental support and not the absence of a parent that is responsible for lower academic level, and more frequency of drug and alcohol abuse, and delinquent and deviant behavior.

One limitation of this study will be the convenient sample size that will be used. The sample size will not be representative of the population since it will possibly consist of primarily female students pursuing a psychology major. Thus, this may affect the effect size for gender. Another possible limitation of the study will be participants providing fictitious information. This may especially occur with questions concerning drug and alcohol use and delinquent and deviant behavior especially if the participant is not of legal age.

Previous research has determined that family structure affects academic performance and social behavior. However, as this study may possibly show, is that parental support plays a major role in a persons development. Future studies can take into effect not only how persons perceive their parents support level but also how the parents perceive their own parental support as well.

References

Bosworth & Espelage (1995). Teen Conflict Scale. Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/pdf/YV/CDC_YV_SecIII.pdf.

Boyce Rodgers, K., & Rose, H. (2001). Personal, family, and school factors related to adolescent academic performance: A comparison by family structure.
Marriage & Family Review,
33(
4), 47-61. doi:10.1300/J002v33n04_05.

Boyd, R. J., & Higgins, G. E. (2006). Can parental support mediate the link between low self-control and deviance?.
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law & Society, 19(3), 257-273. doi:10.1080/14786010600921654

Engs, R. C. (2007). The Student Alcohol Questionnaire. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~engs/saq.html

Featherstone, D., Cundick, B., & Jensen, L. (1992). Differences in school behavior and achievement between children from intact, reconstituted, and single-parent families.
Adolescence,
27(
105), 1-12.

Kurdek, L., & Sinclair, R. (1988). Relation of eighth graders’ family structure, gender, and family environment with academic performance and school behavior.
Journal of Educational Psychology,
80(
1), 90-94. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.80.1.90.

Violence Prevention Project (2004). Problem Behavior Frequency Scale. Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/pdf/YV/CDC_YV_SecIII.pdf.

Weitoft, G., Hjern, A., & Rosn, M. (2004). School’s out! Why earlier among children of lone parents?
International Journal of Social Welfare,
13(
2), 134-144. doi:10.1111/j.1369-6866.2004.00307.x.

Appendix B Demographics Sheet

1. I am a:

(A) Male
(B) Female

2. My ethnic heritage is:

(A) Asian or Pacific Islander

(B) African American (Black), not of Hispanic origin

(C) Mexican-American, Hispanic

(D) European-American (Anglo)

(E) Other

3. My age is: _______
4. The quality of my parents marriage is/was (if deceased or divorced):

(A) Very good
(B) Good
(C) Average
(D) Poor
(E) Very poor

5. For the majority of my life I lived in a:

(A) One-parent family (mother only/father only)

(B) Two parent family (mother and father/parent & step-parent)

6. The way I feel about myself generally is:

(A) Very positive
(B) Positive
(C) Average
(D) Negative
(E) Very negative

7. I would describe my life right now as:

(A) Very happy
(B) Happy
(C) Okay
(D) Unhappy
(E) Very unhappy

8. I would describe myself as:

(A) very outgoing (B) Outgoing (C) Average (D) Quiet (E) very quiet

9. I am currently a:

(A) Freshman

(B) Sophomore
(C) Junior
(D) Senior

10. My college grade point average (GPA) is:

(A) 4.0 (B) 3.9-3.5 (C) 3.4-3.0 (D) 2.9-2.5 (E) 2.4-2.0 (F) less than 2.0

11. My high school grade point average (GPA) is:

(A) 4.0 (B) 3.9-3.5 (C) 3.4-3.0 (D) 2.9-2.5 (E) 2.4-2.0 (F) less than 2.0

Appendix C Parental Support Measure

1. My parents respect my feelings.

2. My parents truly care about me.

3. My parents accept me as I am.

4. I have to rely on myself when I have a problem to solve.

5. I like to get my parents point of view on things that I am concerned about.

6. My parents sense when I am upset about something.

7. My parents value my opinion.

8. My parents express their love for me.

9. When we discuss things, my parents consider my point of view.

10. My parents encourage me to talk about my difficulties.

11. My parents understand me.

12. I trust my parents.

13. I know my parents are there for me.

14. I know my parents will help me if I need it.

15. My parents have their own problems, so I do not bother them with mine.

16. I tell my parents about my problems and troubles.

17. When I am angry about something, my parents try to be understanding.

18. I can count on my parents when I need to get something off of my chest.

Appendix D Delinquent Behavior Measure

Problem Behavior Frequency Scale

How many times have you

1. Been on suspension?

0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-19 20 or more

2. Stolen something from another student?

0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-19 20 or more

3. Snuck into someplace without paying such as movies, onto a bus or subway?

0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-19 20 or more

4. Skipped school?

0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-19 20 or more

5. Cheated on a test?

0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-19 20 or more

6. Taken something from a store without paying for it (shoplifted)?

0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-19 20 or more

7. Written things or sprayed paint on walls or sidewalks or cars where you were not

supposed to?

0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-19 20 or more

8. Damaged school or other property that did not belong to you?

0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-19 20 or more

Appendix E Deviant Behavior Measure

1. What is the highest number of alcoholic drinks you consumed on any single night from last Thursday through Saturday night?

2. What is the highest number of alcoholic drinks you consumed on any single night from last Sunday through Wednesday night?

3. How many times in the last two (2) weeks did you drink to the point that you do not remember some part of the night?

4. Estimate the number of times you cheated on exams and quizzes when you were in grades 9 through 12.

5. Indicate the number of times you have copied answers from another student during an exam while in college.

6. Indicate the number of times you have used notes or books during an exam or quiz when prohibited.

7. Indicate the number of times you submitted a paper as your own that was written by someone else.

8. Do you use tobacco products (smoke, dip, or chew)?

9. How many times in your life have you taken little things (worth less than $5) that did not belong to you?

10. How many times in your life have you taken things of some value (between $5 and $50) that did not belong to you?

11. How many times in your life have you taken large things of value (worth over $50) that did not belong to you?

12. How many times in your life have you taken a car for a ride without the owners permission?

13. How many times in your life have you damaged someone elses property on purpose?

14. Not counting fights you may have had with a brother or sister, how many times have you beaten up on someone or hurt anybody on purpose?

15. How many times have you used marijuana?

16. How many times have you used cocaine?

Appendix F Drug and Alcohol Use Measure

Teen Conflict Scale

At what age did you first (if you ever have)
1. Use tobacco?

Never 21 & over 20-18 17-15 14-12 11-9 8 & under

2. Drink beer, wine, or liquor?

Never 21 & over 20-18 17-15 14-12 11-9 8 & under

3. Get drunk?

Never 21 & over 20-18 17-15 14-12 11-9 8 & under

4. Use marijuana?

Never 21 & over 20-18 17-15 14-12 11-9 8 & under

5. Use inhalants?

Never 21 & over 20-18 17-15 14-12 11-9 8 & under

6. Use other drugs?

Never 21 & over 20-18 17-15 14-12 11-9 8 & under

In the last 30 days, how often (if at all) did you do the following?

7. Use tobacco?

Never 1 time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 or more times

8. Drink beer, wine, or liquor?

Never 1 time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 or more times

9. Get drunk?

Never 1 time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 or more times

10. Use marijuana?

Never 1 time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 or more times

11. Use inhalants?

Never 1 time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 or more times

12. Use other drugs?

Never 1 time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 or more times

Appendix G Drug and Alcohol Use Measure

Student Alcohol Questionnaire

1. How often, on the average, do you usually have a beer?

(A) every day
(B) at least once a week but not every day
(C) at least once a month but less than once a week

(D) more than once a year but less than once a month

(E) once a year or less
(F) never

2. When you drink
beer, how much, on the average, do you usually drink at any one time?

(A) more than one six pack (6 or more cans or tavern glasses)

(B) 5 or 6 cans of beer or tavern glasses

(C) 3 or 4 cans of beer or tavern glasses

(D) 1 or 2 cans of beer or tavern glasses

(E) less than 1 can of beer or tavern glass
(F) Do not drink

3. How often do you usually have wine?

(A) every day
(B) at least once a week but not every day
(C) at least once a month but less than once a week

(D) more than once a year but less than once a month

(E) once a year or less
(F) never

4. When you drink
wine, how much, on the average, do you usually drink at any one time?

(A) over 6 wine glasses

(B) 5 or 6 wine glasses

(C) 3 or 4 wine glasses

(D) 1 or 2 wine glasses

(E) less than 1 glass of wine
(F) Do not drink

5. How often do you usually have a drink of liquor (whiskey, gin, vodka, mixed drinks, etc.)?

(A) every day
(B) at least once a week but not every day
(C) at least once a month but less than once a week

(D) more than once a year but less than once a month

(E) once a year or less
(F) never

6. When you drink
liquor, how many drinks, on the average, do you usually drink at any one time?

(A) over 6 drinks

(B) 5 or 6 drinks

(C) 3 or 4 drinks

(D) 1 or 2 drinks

(E) less than 1 drink
(F) Do not drink

7. How often on the average do you smoke cigarettes?

(A) every day
(B) at least once a week but not every day
(C) at least once a month but less than once a week

(D) more than once a year but less than once a month

(E) once a year or less
(F) Do not smoke Introduction/Literature Review and Hypothesis- The literature review serves as

the introduction to your paper. The literature review should include a thorough review of 8-10 articles related to the chosen topic. The hypothesis should flow from the literature review and add to the current research on the chosen topic.

Topic:
Modeling Behavior for Children Has Long-Lasting Effects

Introduction:
Families are the backbone of society and play a vital role in shaping an individual’s life. In recent years, the increase in divorce rates has led to an upsurge in the number of single parent families. While this change has brought about more diverse family structures, it has also raised concerns about the impact of such structures on children’s academic performance and social behavior. This paper will explore the effect of family structure and parental support on academic performance and social behavior, with a focus on the comparison between single parent and two parent families.

Description:
According to research, family structure has a significant effect on a student’s academic performance and social behavior in school settings. Findings show that students from traditional two parent families tend to perform better both academically and in social interaction compared to students from single parent families, regardless of the parent’s sex. While children from intact families have been shown to have twice as high end of year grades and grade point averages, students from single parent families tend to perform at a lower academic level, making them more susceptible to becoming juvenile delinquents.

The impacts of family structure also extend to social behavior- students from intact families tend to have more desirable behavior ratings, higher punctuality, less absenteeism, and fewer detentions compared to students from single parent families. These findings suggest that students from single parent families require more support and resources to achieve optimal academic performance and social behavior.

Parental support is also a crucial factor in determining a student’s academic performance and social behavior. Highly educated single parents provide support similar to that of parents of minimal education in two-parent families. However, research shows that parental support is more effective when both parents are present in the child’s life.

Overall, this paper highlights the need to acknowledge and address the effect of family structure and parental support on academic performance and social behavior, with a focus on providing necessary resources to single parent families.

their children, which leads to worse academic performance and social behavior.

Objectives:
– To understand the impact of family structure on academic performance and social behavior
– To identify the effects of parental support on academic performance and social behavior

Learning Outcomes:
– Students will be able to describe the difference in academic performance and social behavior between students from single parent families and those from two-parent families
– Students will be able to explain the importance of parental support in academic performance and social behavior
– Students will be able to analyze the influence of the educational background of parents on students’ academic performance
– Students will be able to formulate strategies to support students from single parent families and mitigate the negative effects on their academic performance and social behavior.

Headings:
– Introduction
– Impact of family structure on academic performance and social behavior
– Effects of parental support on academic performance and social behavior
– Educational background of parents and students’ academic performance
– Conclusion and Recommendations.

their children than less educated two-parent households, thus having a negative impact on their academic performance (Weitoft et al., 2004).

Solution 1: Counseling and support programs for single-parent households
Given that single-parent families tend to have lower academic performance and more negative behavior in school, counseling and support programs can be implemented to help these families. These programs can provide guidance to single parents on how to support their children’s academic success, teach effective communication skills and offer emotional support. The goal is to help single parents create a positive and nurturing environment that will enhance their children’s academic performance and social behavior in school. These programs can be offered through schools, community centers, and government agencies to ensure that all single-parent households are reached.

Solution 2: Encourage parent involvement in education
Research has shown that parental involvement in their children’s education is crucial to their academic success (Weitoft et al., 2004). Therefore, to improve academic performance and social behavior in school, schools can encourage parent involvement through various means such as regular parent-teacher meetings, workshops, and training programs. Schools can also provide resources such as online portals for assignments and grades, volunteer opportunities, and after-school programs that involve parents. Encouraging parent involvement can help create a strong support system for the children and lead to better academic performance and social behavior in school, regardless of family structure.

their children’s academic life than two parents with minimal education.

Suggested Resources/Books:
1. The Effects of Family Structure on Juvenile Delinquency- John H. Laub, Robert J. Sampson
2. Social Inequalities in Health-New Evidence and Policy Implications- Johannes Siegrist, Michael Marmot
3. Parenting in Global Perspective- Charlotte Faircloth, Diane E. Levine

Similar Asked Questions:
1. How does parental support affect the academic performance and social behavior of children?
2. What are the differences in academic performance between single-parent households and two-parent households?
3. How does family structure affect juvenile delinquency?
4. Does the education level of parents have an impact on their children’s academic performance?
5. How can schools and communities support students from single-parent households to improve their academic performance and social behavior?

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