Answer all three of the following questions per work of art shown below. Answers should be in essay

  

Answer all three of the following questions per work of art shown below.
Answers should be in essay format, be a minimum of three-five sentences
each, and include at least three terms from the glossary for each
work.. Please see attachment the pictures and attachments. Glossary is at the bottom of attachment.
1. Monet in his Studio Boat, Edouad Manet
How does this work follow the Impressionist style?
What painting technique did the artist use?
What social issues does this painting address?
2. The Tub, Edgar Degas
What formal quality did this artist explore?
How did his medium contribute to the appearance of his work?
What Modernist interest does he investigate?
2. Vision after the Sermon, Paul Gauguin,
What fundamental differences exist between Gauguin and the Impressionists?
Why did Gauguin move to Pont-Aven?
How does he reject both Realism and Impressionism in this painting?
Glossary Terms
Art Nouveau
French, “new art.” A late-19th- and early-20th-century art movement whose proponents
tried to synthesize all the arts in an effort to create art based on natural forms that could
be mass produced by technologies of the industrial age. The movement had other names
in other countries: Jugendstil in Austria and Germany, Modernism in Spain, and Floreale
in Italy.
Color
The value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness. The intensity or
saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary,
and complementary colors.
Complementary colors

Those pairs of colors, such as red and green that together embrace the entire spectrum.
The complement of one of the three primary colors is a mixture of the other two.
Divisionism
A system of painting devised by the 19th-century French painter Georges Seurat. The
artist separates color into its component parts and then applies the component colors to
the canvas in tiny dots (points). The image becomes comprehensible only from a
distance, when the viewer’s eyes optically blend the pigment dots. Sometimes referred to
as divisionism.
Impressionism
A late-19th-century art movement that sought to capture a fleeting moment, thereby
conveying the illusiveness and impermanence of images and conditions.
Japonisme
The French fascination with all things Japanese. Japonisme emerged in the second half
of the 19th century.
Modernism
A movement in Western art that developed in the second half of the 19th century and
sought to capture the images and sensibilities of the age. Modernist art goes beyond
simply dealing with the present and involves the artist’s critical examination of the
premises of art itself.
Optical mixture
The visual effect of juxtaposed complementary colors.
Plein air
An approach to painting much popular among the Impressionists, in which an artist
sketches outdoors to achieve a quick impression of light, air, and color. The artist then
takes the sketches to the studio for reworking into more finished works of art.
Pointillism
A system of painting devised by the 19th-century French painter Georges Seurat. The
artist separates color into its component parts and then applies the component colors to
the canvas in tiny dots (points). The image becomes comprehensible only from a
distance, when the viewer’s eyes optically blend the pigment dots. Sometimes referred to
as divisionism.
Post-Impressionism
The term used to describe the stylistically heterogeneous work of the group of late-19thcentury painters in France, including van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat, and Czanne, who
more systematically examined the properties and expressive qualities of line, pattern,
form, and color than the Impressionists did.
Primary colors
Red, yellow, and blue the colors from which all other colors may be derived.
Simultaneous contrasts
The phenomenon that juxtaposed colors affect the eye’s reception of each, as when a
painter places dark green next to light green, making the former appear even darker and
the latter even lighter. See also successive contrasts.
Successive contrasts
The phenomenon of colored afterimages. When a person looks intently at a color (green,
for example) and then shifts to a white area, the fatigued eye momentarily perceives the
complementary color (red). See also simultaneous contrasts.
Symbolism
A late-19th-century movement based on the idea that the artist was not an imitator of
nature but a creator who transformed the facts of nature into a symbol of the inner
experience of that fact.
Value
The value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness. The intensity or
saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary,
and complementary colors.

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Introduction:
The world of art is a vast one, encompassing various styles and movements that have evolved over time. Three such styles that gained immense popularity in the 19th century were Impressionism, Modernism, and Art Nouveau. The artists belonging to these movements sought to capture the essence of their era through their unique painting techniques, explorations, and interests. This essay will focus on three artists, Edouad Manet, Edgar Degas, and Paul Gauguin, belonging to these movements, respectively.

1. Monet in his Studio Boat, Edouad Manet

Description:
Edouad Manet was a French Impressionist painter known for capturing the essence of modern Parisian life in his paintings. The painting “Monet in his Studio Boat” depicts the founder of Impressionism, Claude Monet, on his boat studio. The painting follows the Impressionist style in various ways. Firstly, it portrays the fleeting moment through the depiction of Monet painting en plein air. Secondly, the use of optical mixture through the juxtaposition of complementary colors creates a vivid and radiant effect. Thirdly, the painting technique used by Manet is Impressionistic, as he used loose and rapid brushstrokes instead of a detailed and polished method. The social issue that this painting addresses is the changing attitude towards leisure and outdoor activities during the 19th century.

2. The Tub, Edgar Degas

Description:
Edgar Degas was a French artist who played a significant role as a bridge between Impressionism and Modernism. His painting “The Tub” depicts a woman bathing, which explores the formal qualities of the female body. It portrays a sense of intimacy and introspection, which is a departure from Impressionism’s focus on exterior sensations. The medium of the painting is pastel, which contributes to the appearance of a soft and delicate image. The Modernist interest that Degas explores in this painting is the concept of synthetic unity, where a painting’s elements are in harmony and create a unified effect.

3. Vision after the Sermon, Paul Gauguin

Description:
Paul Gauguin was a French Post-Impressionist artist known for his experimental paintings. The painting “Vision after the Sermon” portrays a group of Breton women who have just attended a sermon. Gauguin’s fundamental differences with the Impressionists are evident through various aspects of this painting. He uses flat planes of bright colors instead of the Impressionist’s use of light and shade. Gauguin moved to Pont-Aven to explore new painting techniques and to reject Realism and Impressionism’s limitations. This painting rejects the Impressionist style and instead portrays the women as idealized, emphasizing their spiritual qualities instead of their physical ones.

Objectives:
– To understand the characteristics of Impressionist art movement
– To analyze the painting techniques used by artists of different modernist art movements
– To explore the social issues and modernist interests reflected in artwork

Learning Outcomes:
– Students will be able to identify the characteristics of Impressionist art movement, such as the use of bright colours, plein air painting technique, and optical mixture.
– Students will be able to analyze the painting technique used by artists of different modernist art movements, such as Divisionism and Pointillism.
– Students will be able to assess the social issues and modernist interests reflected in artwork, such as the rejection of Realism and exploration of Japonisme and Art Nouveau.

Monet in his Studio Boat, Edouad Manet
The painting “Monet in his Studio Boat” follows the Impressionist style in its use of bright colours and the plein air painting technique. The artist captures a fleeting moment in time, conveying the illusiveness and impermanence of the image. Edouad Manet used the divisionism painting technique, which involves separating colour into its component parts and applying them to the canvas in tiny dots (points). By separating the colour, the artist creates a sense of depth and luminosity within the painting. The social issue addressed in this painting is the modernisation of art and the rejection of traditional history and mythology as subject matter.

The Tub, Edgar Degas
The formal quality that Edgar Degas explores in “The Tub” is light and movement. He creates a sense of light through the use of color to emphasize the woman’s skin tone and the water. As for the movement, he captures the moment in a freeze-frame image, showing the woman at a moment of vulnerability and ease. Degas medium, pastel, contributes to the appearance of his work by allowing him to use different colors to emphasise specific details. The modernist interest he investigates is the depiction of modern life and the everyday scene of Parisian women in their private rituals.

Vision after the Sermon, Paul Gauguin
The fundamental difference between Paul Gauguin and the Impressionists is that Gauguin rejected modernity and produced works that had a primitive quality to them. Gauguin moved to Pont-Aven to escape the increasingly industrialised societies of Paris, seeking a more “intelligent” and idyllic existence in the countryside. In “Vision after the Sermon,” he rejected both Realism and Impressionism by painting in a flat, stylised manner and using bright, bold colours. The painting reflects his fascination with the primitive and exotic cultures he encountered during his travels.

Solution 1: Monet in his Studio Boat, Edouard Manet
As a work of Impressionism, Monet in his Studio Boat follows the style by capturing the fleeting moment and conveying the atmosphere of light and air. The artist used the technique of plein air painting, which involves working outdoors to capture the ephemeral qualities of the environment. The painting addresses the social issue of leisure activities for the upper class, seen in the depiction of Monet and his companions on their boat.

Solution 2: The Tub, Edgar Degas
The formal quality that Edgar Degas explores in The Tub is the human figure, specifically the female form. His medium of choice, pastel, contributes to the soft appearance of the work and the blending of colors. The Modernist interest he investigates is the theme of the everyday, mundane moments of life rather than the grand narratives of history or mythology.

Solution 3: Vision after the Sermon, Paul Gauguin
Fundamental differences exist between Paul Gauguin and the Impressionists in terms of the subject matter and paint application. Gauguin rejected Realism and Impressionism, moving towards a more symbolic approach to art and utilizing flat planes of vibrant color. Gauguin moved to Pont-Aven in search of a simpler, more authentic way of life and a new artistic community. In Vision after the Sermon, Gauguin rejects traditional perspective to depict a vision experienced by the women in the painting, exploring the symbolic and spiritual realm.

1. Monet in his Studio Boat, Edouad Manet

How does this work follow the Impressionist style?

“Monet in his Studio Boat” is an Impressionist piece of art. Monet painted the river Seine, which runs through Paris and recreates the atmosphere of peace and tranquillity on a sunny day. This work follows the Impressionist style because it captures light and its changing qualities. It was created with quick brushstrokes, opting for visible contour lines, use of vibrant colors, and luminosity to create a dreamlike and fleeting quality, highlighting this defining characteristic of Impressionist art.

What painting technique did the artist use?

The artist used the technique of en plein air painting or painting outdoors. This technique was preferred by Impressionist artists who aimed to capture the essence of a moment in time, the feeling of light, and the atmosphere. Monet used quick brushstrokes to capture the effects of natural light on his subject, which gives the surface of the painting a lively appearance. Impressionist artists also preferred to work with bright and vibrant colors, which can be seen in this painting as well.

What social issues does this painting address?

This painting does not explicitly address any specific social issues. However, one may interpret a deeper meaning in the choice of subject. During the late 19th century, industrialization had altered many aspects of life in France, including the use of the Seine for transportation. The calm and peaceful appearance of the river in the painting may be seen as a nostalgic longing for a simpler way of life before the modernization of the country.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. “The Private Lives of the Impressionists” by Sue Roe.
2. “Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society” by Robert L. Herbert.
3. “The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade That Gave the World Impressionism” by Ross King.

Similar asked questions:

1. What is the defining characteristic of Impressionist art?
2. Why did Impressionist artists work outdoors?
3. How did Impressionism redefine the standards of art in the 19th century?
4. Can you identify any other famous works by Monet that follow the Impressionist style?
5. How did Impressionism influence the development of Modernism in art?

2. The Tub, Edgar Degas

What formal quality did this artist explore?

In “The Tub,” Edgar Degas explores the theme of the everyday female ritual of bathing, but he also experiments with unusual framing, cropping and asymmetry in composition which rejected the traditional rules of art. He focused on asymmetry which gives the paintings a sense of liveliness and dynamism. Moreover, Degas tried to capture the essence of the scene, its unique moment, by using light and dark contrasts.

How did his medium contribute to the appearance of his work?

Degas’ medium of choice was pastel on paper. The artist preferred pastel because of its vivid colors and the rich texture he could achieve with it. Pastels allowed him to layer colors and blend them in a soft and delicate way visible in the delicate treatment of the water. The pastels also allowed him to create soft and feathery marks that were ideal for conveying the tactility of the objects.

What Modernist interest does he investigate?

Degas’ experimentation with framing and the use of asymmetry, particularly in the cropping of the figures, is an early example of the Modernist interest in non-traditional compositions. The perspective is not always traditional, nor is the subject matter itself closely tied to what was considered high art during the period. Degas’ attempt to move away from conventional compositions delineated the direction of the new artistic movement.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. “Degas” by Jean Sutherland Boggs.
2. “Degas: Beyond Impressionism” by Richard Thomson.
3. “Degas by Himself: Drawings, Prints, Paintings, Writings by Edgar Degas”.

Similar asked questions:

1. How did Degas challenge traditional compositions of art in “The Tub”?
2. What is the importance of Degas’ use of asymmetry in this painting, and how did it influence later artists?
3. How does Degas’ use of pastel contribute to the tactile feeling of the painting?
4. How did Degas’ early work differ from his later work in terms of style and subject matter?
5. What was the importance of Degas’ experimentation with non-traditional subjects for Modernism in art?

3. Vision after the Sermon, Paul Gauguin

What fundamental differences exist between Gauguin and the Impressionists?

Gauguin differed from the Impressionist style in several fundamental ways. While the Impressionists focused on capturing the effects of light, Gauguin aimed to capture a spiritual essence in his works. His use of intense and contrasting colors separated him from the Impressionist palette. The Impressionists preferred airy and cheerful tones, but Gauguin’s scenes were more somber and symbolic and aimed to evoke a mystical, spiritual dimension.

Why did Gauguin move to Pont-Aven?

Gauguin moved to Pont-Aven to avoid the homogenization of the art world in Paris and search for a more authentic feeling in his art. In Pont-Aven, he was able to cultivate his own style, in part by working closely with other artists who shared his interest in non-western styles and mythology.

How does he reject both Realism and Impressionism in this painting?

Gauguin rejected both Realism and Impressionism by prioritizing the image’s spiritual significance over the accuracy of details or the nature of light. He favored a bright, symbolic color palette over the muted tones and realism of the earlier styles. In “Vision after the Sermon,” he superimposes the vision of a religious scene over the actual Breton landscape on which it’s based. This merging of reality and spirituality led many critics to dub it an early precursor to Symbolism in art.

Suggested Resources/Books:

1. “Gauguin” by Gloria Groom.
2. “Paul Gauguin: The Search for Paradise” by Belinda Thompson.
3. “Gauguin: Tahiti” by George T. M. Shackelford.

Similar asked questions:

1. How does Gauguin’s use of color and symbolism differ from the Impressionist style?
2. Why was Paul Gauguin attracted to non-western styles and mythology in his art?
3. How did Gauguin’s move to Pont-Aven influence his artwork?
4. How did Gauguin’s artistic vision relate to the Symbolist movement?
5. Can you identify other famous works by Gauguin that similarly merge spirituality with realism?

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